Dear friends, these are remembered/repeated questions (RQs) and answers I COPIED and PASTED from different discussions on Facebook. I feel sorry because I couldn’t organize the file the way I wanted but I hope it helps. Probably you’ll find some wrong answers in this file, but PLEASE … DO NOT CRITICIZE! Find out the right answer, learn it, share it, PASS your test and BE HAPPY J

I wish you all the best GOD BLESS YOU!


mango corrected

All of the following are adverse effects of opioids except? diarrhea and somnolence

Advantage of osteogenesis distraction is? less relapse, large movements

An investigation that is not accurate but consistent is: reliability

Remineralized enamel is rough and cavitation? Dark hard and opaque

Characteristics of a child with autism – repetitive action, sensitive to light and noise

S,z,che sounds : Teeth barely touching – True

Something about bio-transformation, more polar and less lipid soluble? – True

How much of he population has herpes? 80% – (65-90% worldwide; 80-85% USA) More than 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 – or 67% of the population – are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), according to WHO’s first global estimates of HSV-1 infection published today in the journal PLOS

Steps of plaque formation: pellicle, biofilm, materia alba, plaque

Dose of hydrocortisone taken per year that will indicate have adrenal insufficiency and need supplement dose for surgery – 20 mg 2 weeks for 2 years

Rpd clasp breakage due to what? Work hardening

Most impacted tooth? Third molar not in options – Maxillary canine

Least common survival of lip cancer – white female

Aspirin mode of action – inhibit irreversible platelet aggregation thromboxane a2

Myasthenia gravis, what is contraindicated? erythromycin and aminoglycosides

Treatment for ANUG – Debridement and mouth rinse with h2O2 and if systemic involvement then antibiotics

Which type of periodontitis needs antibiotics – LAP

Antibiotic used for periodontitis – Tetra and Pen V, also metro

Asthma physiology definition – Wheezing on expiration

20. Ranitidine definition – Selective H2 (Histamine) receptor antagonist, these receptors are present in Gastric mucosa lining. Thereby blocking the receptors and prevents release of Gastric acid.

Which is prevalent: 1 wall defect, 2 wall defect, 3 wall defect

Penumbra definition – Penumbra is lack of sharpness of the

Which is more hydrophillic pvs or polyether (this question was asked to me twice during day1) – Polyether (but also hydrocolloids)

Many questions on study model all leading to a common answer that was cross sectional study model (they tend to repeat the questions in different formations during day 1).

Face division vertically and horizontally – vertical 3 and horizontal 5


Disease more common in men (hemophilia)

One q on relation between incisal guidace is equal and condylar guidance – When adjusting the condylar guidance for protrusive relationship, the incisal guide pin on the articulator should be raised out of contact with the incisal guided

Many qs on study model leading to a common answer that was clinical trail (mostly they were on effectively of practices, drugs, etc).

Which has poorest prognosis and the answer was PLGA salivary gland tumor. They had confused it with adenoid cystic and mucoepi – False – Pleomorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma (PLGA) has good prognosis after surgical excision (Mosby) – I think answer is Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

A lot of questions on anti cancer drugs so study it carefully… really sorry that i don’t remember them as I was poor in that topic – Dihydrofolate reductase by methotrexate, amoxicillin inhibits renal tubular secretion of

What comes before plaque or pellicle or biofilm

Deepest part of occlusal rest for rpd – marginal ridge

Simple questions in oral patho about cleidocranial as to what it affects (clavicles)

Many many many questions in endo with positive or negative findings in relation to percussion, palpation, night pain and then diagnosis of the combinations were

Simple questions in relation to pulpectomy and pulpotomy: pulpotomy – vital / pulpectomy – non vital

Questions on modellling technique in pt mngmt (pt made to observe his cousins or friends behaviour to improve his own)

Disto buccal extension of mandi cd lateral limit influenced by masseter or ramus

Key feature of the custom tray during final impression is its under extension? – The custom tray for a final mandibular or maxillary complete denture impression should have a spacer w/ stops to ensure the tray will be seated in proper relationship to the arch, and to ensure adequate room for the impression material. Other features: trimmed 2 mm short of the mucosal reflection and The primary indicator of the accuracy of border molding is the stability and lack is displacement of the tray in the mouth.

Class ii and iii drug:

S II: amphetamines, morphine, cocaine, pentobarbital, oxycodone, methadone, codeine, and Percocet (acetaminophen + oxycodone). (Must have a written prescription and cannot be refilled)


S III: Tylenol 3, Vicodin – must have a written prescription, refills do not need new prescription and may be called into the pharmacy.

Hemorrhage common complication of maxi extractions and to my surprise the same question with mandi extractions was asked but without the option of dry socket, infection was the only sane option so i went forAbsolute contra of papoose straps emergency situation or a co-operative patient

A lot of questions on 3/4th and 7/8 crowns but they were basic ones and i could derive the answer by using the facts given in dental



A lot of questions on ethical principals of a dentist (guys for these questions please ref to the ethical principal details mentioned on the ada website…. If you do it from there you will be able to nail each and every one of:

What sound is affected if incisors are placed too far superiorly and ant: f and v

Best (conservative) method to close a 1 mm non patho diastema in a young adult is:


If a patient doesn’t have 3rd molars how many furcations will he have in mxi arch (to make the calculation simple there are three furcations for maxi teeth mesial distal and Buccal rest is simple calculation) – 16 – maxillary molars have 3 furcations (4 molars * 3 furcations = 12), 1st pm is bifurcated, that means it has 2 furcations (2*2=4). We have 16 furcations. 2nd premolars, central incisors, lateral incisors and canines do not have furcations.

Most common site for graft iliac – true

Most common site for mandi fracture – condyle

Complication with distraction osteogenesis – nerve damage

Implant analogue used to replicate the position of implant on the implant platform (confusing options were if its used for impressions? Nope that’s impression copings – An implant analogue is an implant replica and is inserted into the set impression material before the cast is Impression coping is attached directly to the implant fixture head. Impression copings facilitate transfer of the intraoral location of the implant to the same position on the laboratory cast. Impression copings can be either screwed into the implant body or screwed or snapped onto an implant abutment.

Simple questions on implants like distance from adjacent tooth and the implant


Distance from the ant loop and the implant which is 5mm

During IANB bleeding is caused due to puncture into which artery – inferior alveolar artery

Two questions on ideal resto material for a class v lesion but this patient was young and had an active caries condition (I was shocked to see this question repeat twice with minor formation changes) – According to DD: glass ionomer is indicated in high caries risk and CLASS V where esthetics is a concern, so I would go with


Two questions on the incision for int bevel in which direction is it directed – the internal bevel incision (reverse bevel) starts at a distance from the gingival margin and is aimed at the bone

Which of the following cements should not be used with all ceramic restorations due to reports of ceramic fractures? 1. Gic 2. Resin luting cement 3. Zinc phosphate cement 4. Resin modified GIC

Same went for gingivectomy (same q on where is the incision directed) – above mucogingival junction .

Why do we remove bone during modified widman flap – to achieve a good tissue adaptation to the neck of the

Which type of comp are used for two cases posterior comp and for repairing small occlusal defects (micro, mid, macro, etc ) – Microhybrids – they have particular size small enough to polish to a shine similar to microfills but large enough to be highly filled, thus achieving higher strength. Particle size small enough to polish and high strength. Retain good properties of hybrids (strength), with improved handling. Polishability almost equal to microfills. Universal use—anterior and posterior restorations.

Microfills: high polishability but low fracture toughness (esthetic areas, anterior restorations), lower elastic modulus—better in class V situations.

Hybrids: not high polish but improved physical properties compared to microfills., Universal use—anterior and posterior

Macro filled composites: First-generation” restorative composites. Poor physical and mechanical properties. Poor


Why don’t we do posterior comp – because of its low wear resistance we don’t do posterior composite in cases of

Dentist does a comp but shade is too light what is the most conservative mngmt which acc to my opnion was apply tint and not redo the entire restoration – tint

Simple q like chisel cuts – used mainly to cut enamel


A lot of questions on mngmt of hypertension like wha drug for mild cases, what drug for sever cases or htn emergency:

Mild hypertension: CHLOROTHIAZIDE (thiazides), diuretics, beta-blockers such as PROPRANOLOL, alpha1 blockers such as ATENOLOL, centrally acting adrenergic drugs such as METHYLDOPA or CLONIDINE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as CAPTOPRIL, LISINOPRIL.

Severe hypertension: GUANETHIDINE and ganglionic blocking

What not to give in COPD emergency mnmgt which acc to my opinion was only oxygen (other options had a potent bronchodilator along whith o2 which is the way to go) – True, inhalation of 100% oxygen is contraindicated in a patient w/ COPD

Montelukast and zakirlucast what type of drugs in relation to their effect on leukotriene – Block leukotriene (cys-LT1) receptors

Simple calculations in LA (based upon normal values and how much to give i the give case, how much epi is present in x carpule ).

Effect of age on biotransformation of the drug (this was a bouncer for me)- W/ age -> slower rate of biotransformation and reduced rates of elimination – Children will inactivate and eliminate medications faster than adults. In the elderly there may be a diminished dose requirement for many medications because of age-related decreases in liver mass, hepatic enzyme activity, and hepatic blood

If one increases the h2o to powder ratio what does it do with relation to hardness and expansion (this is for gypsum) – decreased setting expansion and decreased strength (increased setting time)

What property of a cement is not affected by water to powder ratio options were solubility, consistency, thickness, etc

What would one prefer distal rest or mesial rest…. always go for mesial rest – mesial to edentulous

Sulcular depth req for lingual bar – depth = 7-8 mm minimum At least 4 mm below the gingival margins

Most rigid type of maxi major connector – anterior-posterior palatal strap

Question on migrane with how the TRIPTANS work – Triptans are agonists at serotonin 5- HT(1b/1d) receptors – serotonin 5-HT agonist antimigraine drugs (Mosby)

Pt with symptoms of headache fatigue fever and vision loss… the only sane option was temporal arteritis – True: weight loss, polymyalgia, rheumatic, fever, decreased vision, jaw claudication. (Mosby)

Supernumerary teeth with intestinal polps and osteomas (Gardners syndrome) – True

Unstimulated flow from submandibular salivary gland – 1ml/minute

Ant flabby tissue under maxi cd and mandi ant natural teeth combination syndrome or kellys syndrome – True

Pka with rate of onset, lipid solubility with bioavailability of a drug (two questions on that)

Sign of kidney failure which will levels will shoot the earliest blood: uric acid, creatinine, creatinine phosphokinase, urea, etc – creatinine

Q on when to treat patient with respect to dialysis: one day after his

Commonly used nsaid in kids is: ibuprofen

Acetaminophen acts on temp centre in hypothalamus thus causing its anti pyretic effect, options were supposed to confuse us to choose prostaglandins. Hypothalamus

-> temperature regulation center.

Then the same old same old question was asked as to if a patient has basal cel carcinoma and you are about to break the news to him and he says that just tell me straight do i have cancer or not, first response should be should i cal someone to be with you, the other option which made sense was that prognosis of basal cell is good but this shoudnt be the anser in my opnio as the patient is in a grumpy mood and you need to calm him down first before going on to discuss the details with him).

Advantage of led light cure with respect to haolge – energy efficient, lightweight, lifetime

What is the first stage of HIV infection, i went for asymptomatic phase as that’s the first stage followed by acute infection, aids related complex which as hairy tongue, leukoplakia, and other stuff and lastly full blown

Dementia early sign short term loss or long term loss… i went with short term as one of my family member suffered from it so i remembered it crystal

Autism patient will have problem with listening and speaking there was a q on that too – Delay in several skill areas as talking, listening, plating with peers, and attention span.

Denture considerations in patients with diabetes like use porcelain teeth, arch shape should be narrow, imp with non pressure tech rest of the points are given in decks… the question was on arch shape

One opg with a radio lucency extending from post mand to ant, the sane option was OKC and the confusing options were ameloblastoma, but since ameloblastoma spreads labiolingually rather than ant post – OKC – antero-posterior direction without bony expansion and often associated with impacted

One more pano with radiolucency seen with unerrupted tooth and the only sane option was dentigerous cyst – It contains a crown of an unerupted tooth (DD)

Cause of ORN which had two conf options like bisphos and 42 gy , i went with bisphos as 42 gy is susceptible and more than 60 gy means he has high chances but bisphos is


like the principal cause that’s y it was called BRONJ but now they have changed it to MRONJ which is medically induced orn – FALSE: osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is related to head and neck radiation and BRONJ is bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw – related to intravenous and oral bisphosphonates therapy. If the case is about ORN the answer is not bisphosphonates. If the question is about BRONJ or MRONJ the answer should be bisphosphonates.

Base value for good patient relation is: communication should be good

Same follow up on this question was active listening is done by active eye

Never judge a patient …this was the q and a never what …. (and the only sane option was) judge

Plz do all the interferences and wht cusps occlude with what during maximum intcusptn… there is a nice video on youtube called fence diagram video which i had done during part one that helped me a

Very little qs on ortho mostly with cephalometrics angles like sna snb and stuff bc they were kept in store for day two

Dist between casette/grid and the collimator for a lateral ceph 15cm, 60 cm, 5 inch, 6 inch (as per i remember these were the options, but i just randomly gussed this one ).




One pano of a kid and dental age was asked

Supernumerary teeth occurs due to problem in what stage of tooth development ans was: initiation

Basic questions on space maintainers like loss of uni first primary molar what does one give – Band and loop

Class v cavity punch the hole on rubber dam more bucally – True

Same for gold restoration use 212 ivory clamp – clamp #212 for CLASS V facial preparation

Same for teeth who bear clamps the hole should be bigger than the rest – hole punched larger than usual and slightly to the facial of the other holes in the – BB

Intrusion of primary maxi central 5mm inside what to do splint it or leave and follow up and allow to re-erupt.

Most common cause of amalgam failure imp prep or moisture contamination

Bur to polish porcelain is diamond

Question on what type of dentin shouldn’t be removed during prep which is eburnated dentin – True – we don’t remove sclerotic = eburnated dentin

One question which i don’t remember very clearly but it was on the fact that never do pulpo on closed apex – True, pulpotomy is indicated on undeveloped primary

One thing we cant see clearly on 2d image is missed canal or extra canal which requires CBCT – Dental cone beam computed tomography (CT) … but the way this was put was confusing but once i read it carefully i could break it down .

Le forte 1 was with max sinus

Plz do all the elevators carefully, i got a question saying which of these can’t be used for mandi pm and the only sane option was 151 – False: #151 is for mandibular pm, we can’t use #23 because it is for mandibular

You need to adjust the denture near bucca frenum as the denture keeps on falling when the patient smiles… this is due to which muscle – Because it’s maxillary it should be orbicularis. Buccal frenum -> triangularis (mandibular), Labial frenum -> orbicularis (mandibular and maxillary).

For implant the instrument specification is: low speed and high torque


One question on bundling with the same scenario as dentist charging a procedure as one whe and the insurance company charging it as two different procedures – I think it’s unbundling -> separating of a dental procedure into component

Stippling is seen on: Attached gingiva

You did a prep with high speed and diamond bur, tooth is sensitive, what is it about bur and handpiece that it caused sensitivity? A) Desiccation b) traumatized dentin c) Heat

What is lithium used for? Psychotic stage of bipolar

8yrs old girl with ant crossbite, max laterals have not erupted yet. When and how do you treat crossbite? I put immediate tx and some appliance with springs

Same girl, supposedly there’s a supernumerary not erupted next to 6, what can happen when u extract it? A-necrosis of 6 B- necrosis of 7 C-necrosis of 8 D-7 won’t erupt

Benzo overdose? Flumazanil

Flumazenil what for? Reverse benzodiazepines

Tooth most with dry – mandibular 3rd molar

Pvs and latex interaction – sulfur in the latex retards the setting of addition silicone

What does major connector does? Rigidity and Stability

Width of palatal strap – I put 8mm not sure, (single palatal strap its width is more than 8mm)

How do u compensate protrusion in articulator something like that. I put slide forward 5-8mm

Lesion hard and painful near lower Options fibroma, neurofibroma, traumatic neuroma. They didn’t say that pt had denture. (Traumatic neuroma = painful / Neurofibroma = asymptomatic)

Lesion on tongue: Pyogenic granuloma, Ectopic thyroid gland, Giant ossifying fibroma (Pyogenic granuloma = 75% on gingiva / Giant ossifying fibroma = exclusive to gingiva / Ectopic thyroid gland = base of tongue) – it’s provably pyogenic granuloma because pyogenic granulomas are also found on the tongue, BUT! Keep in mind that neurilemoma (schwannoma) is an encapsulated mass that presents as an asymptomatic lump and the tongue is the most common

Hemangioma on tongue – hamartoma

Pt with aids what do u ask? Cd4 or viral count – T-cell counts are most important for staging the disease and guiding dental (Kaplan Cases)

New pt upset, crossing arms, looking at What do u ask after introduction

-What brings u here today?

Pointer in facebow, what for – designed to mark anterior reference point (infraorbital notch) and can be locked in position with a It is present in the arbitrary facebow.

Saturation –Chroma –hue –value

What albuterol causes -risk of caries -dry mouth (chronic use of albuterol is known to cause xerostomia).

What not to give in asthmatic attack? We give: 1st oxygen w/ beta2-adrenergic agonist (albuterol, terbutaline). If resistant to beta agonists => Theophylline. We can also give corticosteroids. Epi is only for severe asthmatic

Heart rate in child – 110


Max dose of Tylenol – 4g (4000 mg per 24 hours)

Tylenol kids: 10-15 mg/Kg dose every 4-6h

Kid is 65 pounds, how many carpules of lido? 1-3

ANB of 1 what skeletal class is – Class II (ANB >4 = Class II)

SNA of 87 and SNB of 81 what it means – Skeletal class II – prognathic maxilla

Pt wants dentures. For tx, pt had 2 and 3, 22, 24, 24, 25, 27, 32. 18 What is unnaceptable do for tx plan option. There were different types of options with implants, fpd, I put extraction of all teeth

Tylenol which schedule – Sch 3 if with codeine (Tylenol 3)

Need of sinus lift for ext of ant upper teeth? False!

What pain med for patient with apnea – Nevertheless, patients with OSA who undergo surgical procedures should receive regional analgesia and non-opioid agents (e.g., NSAIDs) if there are no contraindications for their us

146. Disadvantage of NO2 – It is not a complete pain reliever (a local anesthetic is still required), nausea is the most common patient complaint, and diffusion hypoxia can occur.

What could cause unilateral class II molar? Early extraction of A (max 2nd molar)

Early unilateral loss of a deciduous second molar is likely to cause the developing dentition to be crowded as the first permanent molar will drift or tip mesially.

1% chlorhexidine gel. Where do u use it?

Interproximal caries

Root Erosion

Occlusal amalgam with minor open margin

Goal of GTR? – Coronal movement of PDL – regenerate the periodontum, promoting growth of endothelial cells, osteblasts and cementoblasts (NOT EPITHELIAL CELLS)

What no to do on D of 3rd molar is there’s not enough keratinized tissue? I put

Distal wedge

What anxiolytic for pregnant and breastfeeding – Promethazine

DMFT for what study? Community trials (epidemiological)

Who has more diabetes? Black males

Perio doesn’t depend on nutritional – T

In class III kennedy where do u get support and retention from? Entirely tooth supported (abutments) – Rests and bases for support

Pt with porcelain and amalgams, what fluoride to give? Neutral NaF

Most common anomaly? DI (after cleft palate)

First pass metabolism – Liver (enteral – oral)

Teeth joined by dentin and cementum? Fusion

What pain med for liver toxicity? Oxycodone

What pain for pt with bleeding problems? Acetaminophen

Ginseng not with? Aspirin

Advantage of IV – Titration

Reverse epinephrine by – Phentolamine (selective alpha blocker phentalomine, phenoxybenzamine, prazosin)

Epi works on which receptor: all alpha and beta

First side effect of beta blocker – weakness or drowsiness (The most common adverse side effects of beta blockers are WEAKNESS & DROWSINESS) – BB

Which Anesthesia without epi – Mepivacaine


Allergic to both ester and amide what to give – Diphenhydramine (Benadril)

EMLA composed of which two type of anesthesia – Lido 5 % and 2.5% prilocaine

Which Anesthesia not with anemia – prilocaine

Anesthesia not vasodilator – Cocaine

Why anesthesia not work in inflammation – Less free base

First nerve affect by LA – Small unmyelinated (pain and temperature)

Which trimester contraindicate the No2 –1st

Most Caries where? Max 1st molar (according to Kaplan)

Overdose of LA what to give – diazepam (for toxicity)

Antagonist of diazepam – flumazenil

Problem in liver which benzo to give – LOT- lorazepam, oxazepam n temazepam

Buspirone which receptor works in – Serotonin – BUSPIRONE (BUSPAR) – a minor tranquilizer orally administered anxiolytic (anti-anxiety agent) whose mechanism works by DIMINISHING SEROTONERGIC ACTIVITY. – BB

Best anti epileptic for absence seizure – Ethosuxemide

LA contra with which drug: MOA – LA with epi contra with MAO inhibitors, also with TCA – Epi contraindicated w/

Omeprazol used for (GERD or zollinger)? – GERD

Remember all the antibiotics effect on protein synthesis – Clinda, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol

Most common side effect of clindamycine is – Psudomembranous colitis

Mech of action of nystatin – inhibit ergosterol

Which drug increase the effect of amoxicillin – Probenecid

Drug not with milk – Tetracycline

All of these are antipsychotic exept (lorazepam) – T

Drug not with cimetidine – Terfenadine (Seldane) (dangerous drug interaction) – Cimetidine: a potent inhibitor of hepatic drug-metabolizing

190. Drugs known to interact with SELDANE are ketoconazole (NIZORAL), erythromycin (E-MYCIN), nefazodone (SERZONE), itraconazole (SPORANOX), clarithromycin (BIAXIN), mibefradil (POSICOR) as well as grapefruit juice.

Eps (Extrapyramidal syndrome) with which drug except: clozapine – Effectively treats Schizophrenia and more effective & less toxic than the older – BB

Aspirin cuz all except (hyperpnea / tacypenia / hyperkalemia / hyperthermia) – It

causes hypokalemia, not hyperkalemia.

Tx of motion sickness – scopolamine

Tx of myasthenia gravis – pyridostigmine (edrophonium just for diagnosis) – Neostigmine or Pyridostigmine – are cholinesterase inhibitors used to reverse the NMJ blockade (paralysis) caused by NMJ blockers. – BB

Edrophonuim all true except (cause dry mouth) – Edrophonium is an indirect- acting cholinergic agonist (cholinomimetic). Drug of choice to “diagnose” myasthenia gravis because of its rapid onset of action and

Which drug is safe in Myesthenia Gravis (a) Penicillin (b) Erythromycin (c) Clarithromycin (d) IIDR

Tx of xerostomia due to radiation – Pilocarpine

Overdose of organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor – Pralidoxime

Dont use cortisone in (all the answer were contraindicate so I picked all)

Mech of action of diltiazem – Calcium channel blockers useful as anti-anginal agents to treat chronic stable angina pectoris by blocking calcium entry through the


membranous calcium ion channels of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. – Calcium channel blockers that prevent angina attacks by dilating coronary blood vessels to improve blood flow to the heart muscle. – Calcium channel blockers decrease oxygen demand by reducing afterload by reducing peripheral resistance via vasodilation.

Contra for use digoxin – Diuretics (will inc digitalis toxicity), also contraindicated in ventricular fibrillation & ventricular

Mech of action of heparin – potentiation of Antithrombin III, thus inactivating thrombin. This prevents the formation of – BB

The most important anticoagulant effect of heparin is to interfere with the convertion of: 1. PTA t PTC 2. PTC to factor VII Fibrinogen to fibrin – (ASDA) 4. Prothrombin to thrombin 5. Proaccelerin to accelerin.

Aldosterone antagonist – Spironolactone – Spironolactone a pharmacologic antagonist of aldosterone in the collecting tubule. Spironolactone competes with aldosterone receptor sites in the renal tubules causing increased secretion of Na+, CI, and H20, while conserving K+. – BB

Cyp34A u should know how drug effect on it, from dd only – Inhibitors are antifungals, increase triazolam serum concentration. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4, is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. It oxidizes small foreign organic molecules (xenobiotics), such as toxins or drugs, so that they can be removed from the – Wiki

Which drugs affect cytochrome P450 metabolism of other drugs? erythromycin lowers cytochrome P450 metabolism of other drugs, Macrolid ABs, antifungual, cimetidine

Tx of glaucoma by: betaxolol – Pilocarpine, Betaxolol, Latanoprost, Bimatoprost

Overdose of lead tx by – EDTA by chelation (Mosby)

Modafinil decreases GABA to improve what – glutamate (Modafinil decreases GABA and increases glutamate, dopamine, and orexin)


Overdose of morphine tx by – Naloxone (Opioid adverse effects are reversed & recovery hastened by administration of Naloxone (Narcan) an opioid )

Only opioid transmucosal is – Fentanyl

212. Side effects of opioid – sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, physical dependence, tolerance, and respiratory depression.

Common Side Effects OF OPIOIDS: sedation and drowsiness (by depressing the conscious centers of the brain), dizziness, & nausea. The MOST common side effect of the narcotic (opiate) analgesics is NAUSEA. Narcotic analgesics DO NOT cause peptic ulcers (steroids) or – BB

Light pass through to through? (craze line / crack)

Not in the first line of tx of periodontists? (antibiotic/surgery)

Not feature of modify Widman flap? (displace/no reduce of osseous defect)

Most common cause of amalgam failure is? contamination

Doing FMX and u charged the patient for each one is: unbundling

If u reject null hypothesis and p = 08 (type 1 error)

Wheelchair (I picked something with sliding) – Important points: Two people required for shifting patient. 2. Do not pull patient from behind chair. 3. Lock chair wheels before shifting. – Sliding board is the best


Child with furcation involve in tooth number E best treatment is (extraction)? – According to Mosby à if it is a restorable 2nd primary molar and there is no root resorption, tx of choice is pulpectomy. We need to know the child’s age If it is a 1st molar w/ furcation involvement then we talk about extraction.

Best test to test tooth with crown (cold test)

Worst media to save avulsion tooth (water)

Union between two teeth by the mean of cementum is (concrescense)

Stimulated salivary flow (1ml/min)-1L in 24h

Unstimulated (0.1ml/min) no 2 or 0.3

Trapezoidal mouth and shovel incisor? Apert – Oral manifestations of Apert syndrome includes trapezoidal shaped mouth, shovel shaped incisors, Byzantine arch shaped palate, severely delayed eruption, severe crowding and ectopic eruption. – BB

Baby bottle decay affect mostly (max ant)

Most common cause of sealant failure – Contamination with saliva

Most beneficiated tooth with sealants? Maxillary 1st molar

NaF for how many minutes should be applied – 4 minutes

Most common congenital missing primary tooth – primary maxillary lateral incisors

Missing permanent – Most common congenitally missing tooth is the mandibular second premolar (excluding 3rd molars), followed by the lateral incisor, followed by the maxillary second premolar (Mosby)

Most common primary ankylosed tooth? Primary 2nd mandibular molar – now you know why J

The smallest primary tooth is – Primary mandibular lateral incisor

Mesial cusp ridge is longer than distal one in – Maxillary 1st pm, also in primary max

Which stage abnormality may cause peg shape lateral – bell stage (morphodifferentiation)

Two canals mostly in which pm – maxillary 1st pm

EDTA I picked can remove THIN calcification not any calcification (Thin layer of calcification)

Question about pulp diagnosis (pain on percussion) not respond to thermal (I picked d) A: abscess with irreversible pulpitis B:reverible pulpitis C:periodontitis D: non of above

No generation after endo for: dentin

Remineralized enamel is harder and darker – T

245 longer than 330 – T

Change amalgam to composite (I picked veracity) – T

Class 2 caries triangle and the apex to the pulp – T

Cusp reduction resistance form – T

Most lab complain from: under prepared – T

Composite and bleaching wait 1 week before composite – T

Ameloblastoma from okc (light microscope)

Which of these will not cause SICKLE CELL anemia crisis – NO2

Stridor (larangyospasm)

Seizure due to (hypo-Na) – hypoNAtremia

Initiator of light cure?? 1/Camphoroquinone 2/ benzyl peroxide


Albuterol side effect? tremor, anxiety, headache, muscle cramp, DRY MOUTH, tachycardia.

Albuterol side effects except? excess salivation b. tachycardia c. diarrhea. d. CNS stimulation.

Ledronate use in treat which disease – Pagets, osteoporosis

N2o side effect: Nausea and vomiting

Pt on Biophosphonate what to do? endo

With the increase in age, keratinization of the gingiva: decreases

Width of attached gingiva with age – increases

40 years male how to correct cross bite ? Surgery

Not feature of modify Widman flap (displace/no reduce of osseous defect) – bony defects can be curetted (Oxford)

Most common respiratory problem in dental clinic (hyperventilation / no asthma in the choices)

Target in x Ray? anode and tungsten

Dementia? Short term memory loss

266. Amantadine: antiviral (influenza A) and antiparkinsonian drug.

ADHD? Which drug – Amphetamine (Adderall) and methylphenidate (Ritalin)

Large composit and acceptable appearance what to do? Tint

More affect perio? Smoking

Distobuccal complete denture? Masseter

01? Type 1 error

Least Ab use? Chronic perio

Lisinopril moa? Inhibition of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor: interfere with the conversion of Angiotensin I (weak vasoconstrictor) into Angiotensin II (highly effective vasoconstrictor that simulates the release of Aldosterone) by inhibiting the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. – BB

What will not set off an event in a child with sickle disease: Trauma, Cold, Infection, Nitrous oxide

Will have wavelength ? HUE

Pt mouth breather? Open bite

Most tooth affect perio? Max molar (Max 1st molar – most difficult)

Distance btw Implants? 3mm

Down syndrom = Macroglossia

ANUG treatment – debridement, hydrogen peroxide (or warm saline) rinses, and antibiotic therapy (penicillin V) ONLY if there is systemic involvement (i.e. fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy). Patients with HIV-associated ANUG require gentle debridement and antimicrobial

Max sinus x Ray? Waters, Ct, Both in op

Lefort 1? Max sinus involvement

Atenolol which receptor? Atenolol (Tenormin) – competitive b1 cardioselective antagonist that blocks b1 receptors to treat hypertension, chronic angina pectoris, or after a heart attack (MI recovery).

Flouride which ion? OH- ion (hydroxil ion)

The color of gingiva is due to: A. Capillaries B. Thickness of epithelium C. Thickness of keratinization and pigmentation All of the above

While u taking pano u patient move? Horizontal overlap


Junctional epithelium: Is permeable

Least test for recent Truma ? EPT

Most common cause of xerostomia? Medication

Dentogingival unit comprises of: Gingival fibers and junctional epithelium

Free gingival groove represents: Histologic depth of gingival sulcus

Which type of cells are most numerous in gingiva? Keratinocytes

Gingiva is supplied by: Supraperiosteal vessels

The junctional epithelium is attached to the tooth by: Basal lamina

Gingiva is attached by: Junctional epithelium

The length of junctional epithelium is: 0.25–1.35 mm

Least width of attached gingiva is found on the facial aspect of: First premolar

Normal consistency of gingiva is: Soft B. Hard C. Firm D. Firm and leathery

Gingiva in children: Less keratinized, less stippled

Eulanin fibers are found in: A. Gingiva B. Cementum C. Alveolar Periodontal ligament

The function of Langerhan’s cells is: Antigen presentation to lymphocytes

Langerhan’s cells are absent in: Junctional epithelium

Which periodontal fibers are consistent and are reconstructed even after the destruction of the alveolar bone? Transeptal

In periodontal ligament, there is: type I collagen

Periodontal ligament is: narrower on mesial surface

The periodontal ligament: contains epithelial cells of Malassez

PDL is thinnest at: Middle

What type of fibers are principal fibers of PDL? Collagenous

Periodontal fibers which are most resistant to forces along the long axis are:


The thixotropic theory claims that: The periodontal ligament has the rheologic behavior of a thixotropic gel

Alveolar bone is: Compact bone

Anatomic form of roots of teeth is determined by:

Hertwig’s root sheath

“Indifferent fibers” are: Collagen fibers

With aging, changes in periodontal ligament are:

Decrease in number of cells and increase in collagen fibers

Increase in number of cells and decrease in collagen fibers

C. Increase in number of elastic fibers

Hyalinization changes

Feature of aging periodontium is: Scalloping of cementum and alveolar bone surface

Unattached gingiva: A. is interdental gingiva B. is below mucogingival fold C. cannot be separated by probe

D. is marginal gingiva

A black line on the gingiva which follows the contour of the margin is due to:

lead B. Argyria C. Iron D. Mercury

Basal lamina consists of: Type IV collagen fibers

Cementum found on the cervical third of the root is: Acellular extrinsic fiber cementum

The cell that is present in stratum spinosum and stratum basale is: Melanocytes


What make penicillin allergic – Beta lactame ring

Space loss after loss of which primary tooth – Mand 2nd molar

Composite discolored but intact what to do – Redo or polish (go w/ Tint if in options)

What happen if temp of developing solution is too high – Dark

When you put occlusal rest set of direct reatiner mesial or distal to edentulous area? mesial

Inc water powder ratio in gypsum does what: Decreased setting expansion, Decreased strength, increase working/setting time (retards the time)

Which bur is not good for porcelain – Carbide

Advantage of implant over fix partial denture

Best way to dec fear of child – TSD

Best way to dec fear of child ..I said sit down to child’s level

Dentist ask a child u want me to help you to sit on the chair …how to define this situation: one option was perceived helplessness

Tooth most involved in VRF – Mand 1st molar

Advantage of stainless steel over ni titanium – strength

Ledge what to do – bypass it and continue

Collagenase and elastase by which bacteria – Porphyromonas gingivalis

LOW WEAR RESISTANCE is the property of filled resins that is primarily to blame for the failure of Class II composite restorations – T

Common reason for failure of composite in posterior – Saliva contamination or

occlussal wear (recurrent caries according to other books)

Anterior teeth heavily damaged what do you do – PFM or all ceramic crown

What can’t be used as retainers in FPD: inlay

Primary tooth with shortest occlusal table – Upper primary first molar

Pt came back after a month with discolored margins what could be the reason –


Pt came back after 3 day with discolored margins on veneer what could be the reason – Amine or micro-leakage or bacteria

Function of post – Retain core

Why you record protusive relationship – to adjust condylar guidance

A protrusive record registers the anterior-inferior condyle path at one particular point in the translatory movement of the condyles. – Mosby

A dentist is preparing all maxillary anterior teeth for metal-ceramic crowns. Which of the following procedures is necessary to preserve and restore anterior guidance?

Protrusive record B. Template for provisional restorations C. Custom incisal guide table D. Interocclusal record in centric relation – Anterior guidance must be preserved by means of construction of a custom incisal guide table, especially when restorative procedures change the surfaces of anterior teeth that guide the mandible in excursive (lateral, protrusive) movements. – Mosby

Where to place retentive arm – Retentive terminal alone below ht of contour at junction of middle and gingival third (FB group discussion) / Gingival one third of crown in measured undercut (Mosby) – The reciprocal clasp should contact the tooth on or above the height of contour of the tooth (Middle one third of crown).

347. Reciprocal arm what for – Stabilization (resistance of horizontal forces), reciprocation, and auxiliary indirect retention (bracing). Placed on Suprabulge area.

Reciprocal anchorage? – Elastics to close diastema? No


Reciprocal tooth movement—two equal anchorage value teeth or groups of teeth (units) are moved against each other and move the same amount toward or away from each

Reinforced anchorage—adding additional teeth to a unit to distribute the force over a greater area and slowing the movement of the anchor unit. Another method for reinforcing anchorage would be extraoral force, such as with headgear, with interarch elastics, or by using an

349. Behaviour modifiaction definition? Behavior modification is a treatment approach, based on the principles of operant conditioning, that replaces undesirable behaviors with more desirable ones through positive or negative reinforcement.

Child lives in fluoridated area he had a lot of plaque what do you suggest – More systemic fluoride or topical fluoride or fissure sealants.

Topical antifungal options fluconazole clotrimazole miconazole griseofulvin

Antifungal that can be topical and systemic. fluconazole clotrimazole miconazole, griseofulvin – Miconazole Therapeutic Uses: is an azole antifungal drug available for topical and systemic administration – BB

Does premedications required options were cardiac stent murmurs pt had knee replacement within 2years or congestive heart failure or recent MI

Bacteria present in gingiva in ANUG when tissue is not necrosis – Spirochete or

P.interdemdia (P intermedia only, necrosis assoc with spirochete- DD).

Pt is having asymptomatic brown macules on buccal mucosa – Increase melanin or melanocyte proliferation. – “Melanotic macules: These lesions can also occur within the oral cavity, commonly gingiva, buccal mucosa or palate. The cause increased melanin production with NO increase in melanocyte ”

Least resistant to fracture – Leiutic or feldspathic

How morphine cause nausea – Centrally acting right ? – True

Probing depth is 5 and prob pass 2 mm apical from CNJ how much is the attachment loss – 2 mm

Which structure is damaged during free gingival flap surgery taken from palate:

Greater palatine artery or nerve

The reason of high pressure in pregnant women – Pre-eclampsia

After IAN block patient gets infection of which space – Ptergomandibular (masticatory) or messeter or lateral pharyngeal or medial ptergoid

A lot of translucency on pontics gingival 3rd what is the reason- wrong shade selection or wrong metal thickness or inadequate preparation

Excessive translucency of the gingival 1/3 of an anterior metal ceramic pontic is caused by: Inadequate framework design 2. Error in shape selection 3. Poor ridge contour. 4. The palladium content in the gold alloy.

On x-ray of max tooth RL between the margin of a crown and tooth on distal proximal surface. The reason of RL can be all, except: resin, cervical burn, cervical (Other options I do not remember).

Preloading of implant whats the major concern – Torque

Pt wit gag needs to take x ray? How to manage that – Systematic desensitization or graded exposure

Folic acid intake in pat for? – no answer options – Folic acid is commonly prescribed for patients with sickle cell anemia to prevent development of megaloblastic anemia – Folic acid to prevent neural tube

Abscess can be released from perio pocket or not – YES


What do you say if patient ask about instrument sterilization – its according to universal precautions

Gtr best for – GTR best for 3 wall defect and also class 2 furcation

Does anyone know from Class 1 till 4 furcation the treatment plan? Class 1 furcation – good prognosis

Class 2 furcation – GTR Class 3 furcation

….in maxilla – Root amputation

….in mandible – Hemisection Class 4 furcation – Extract

Pain medication for alchoholic – Nsaid or oxycodone

Most common emergency in dental clinic – syncope

Most common resp emergency in clinic – hyperventilation

Function of major connector: Stability or rigidity.

Can we give lorazepam in liver disase? – LOT – lorazepam, oxazepam, Temazepam – good when liver

How to determine periodontal success – No bleeding on probing or establish clinical attachment? – The BEST CRITERION to evaluate the success of SRP is NO BLEEDING ON PROBING (since BOP indicates active inflammatory periodontal disease). Amount of attachment loss is the most important factor in the determination of a prognosis of a tooth with periodontal disease (more accurate than probing depth, tooth mobility, and presence of furcation involvement). à Long term prognosis

= plaque

– Attachment loss à Prognosis of tooth w/ periodontal disease

Bleeding on probing à periodontal success

Plaque à Long term prognosis

TWO MOST CRITICAL FACTORS to determine the prognosis of a periodontally involved tooth are MOBILITY & ATTACHMENT LOSS (the most critical).

Who review patient on maintenance after referral with periodontal treatment:

Dentist or hygienist or dental assistance.

Drug for neuogenic and manic . Tegretol (carbamazepine) or lithium

Viral load of HIV 10000 do you treat the patient or referral to specialist – refer

Abscess can be relieved thru perio pocket.T/F

Feeling of been in the doom – Panic attack or anxiety or simple fear

Tongue blade appliance is used in? – anterior cross bite

Pt recive blow to eye orbital floor less common to fracture t/False

Pt who took treatment for hep A before 3 years so he still contagious or NO

What drug (pain) you give to pt with renal failure: Tylenol nsaid codien morphine

Teeth with necrotic pulp and perio Only RCT or perio treatment too?

Only RCT

At least 4mm of gutta-percha MUST remain to preserve the apical

Face bow transfers relation of arches? In centric relation, In centric occlusion

Most common site(s) for contact stomatitis – Side of tongue, Hard palate, Gingiva,


Best radiograph for implant? CT scan. PA. MRI

How to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV patient – Topical or systemic, (fluconazole). Esophageal and pharyngeal candidiasis is related with AIDS. Oral candidiasis à topical antifungal (clotrimazole or nystatin). – Kaplan Cases


You have HIV+ pt you can do all of the followin except

treath with metronidozole

free gingival graft

c)prophylaxix to treat candidiasis

“Data from prospective controlled trials indicate that fluconazole can reduce the risk of mucosal disease (i.e., oropharyngeal, esophageal, and vulvovaginal) in patients with advanced HIV. However, routine primary prophylaxis is not recommended because mucosal disease is associated with very low attributable morbidity and mortality and, moreover, acute therapy is highly effective. Primary antifungal prophylaxis can lead to infections caused by drug-resistant Candida species and introduce significant drug-drug interactions. In addition long-term oral prophylaxis is expensive. Therefore, routine primary prophylaxis is not recommended (AIII).”

Permanent tooth with largest occlusal table – maxillary first

Epithelium comes from the donor site – T

Dexterity- Something to do with flossing -> 5 brush and 8 If lack of dexterity can’t do interproximal floss – T

Perio v/s endo abscess- pulp testing, lat percussion

Opaque porcelain function mask dark oxidized color – T

Methotrexate- anti cancer drug folic acid inhibitor – T

What is battery? Treatment without informed consent

Autonomy – Let the patient

Ectodermal dysplasia oligodontia, sparse hair – anodontia or oligodontia, depressed bridge of nose, lack of sweat glands, and the child appears much older than he or she (DD)

Diabetes commonly found in which ethnicity? Black male

Periodontis most Common? Black male

What causes cervical discoloration of PFM copper, Plaque

Flame shaped radiolucency above an unerupted third molar – pericoronaritis

Safe drug in pregnancy acetaminophen

Safe drug in breastfeeding promethazine

Prolonged use of Aspirin can cause metabolic acidosis

411. Fusion, Gemination – Fusion less number and gemination extra number or one big crown, Fusion 2 buds fuse together and form one tooth.. from total no of teeth, there is decrease in number.

Failure of which stage of tooth development affect Number of teeth – initiation

413. Size – morphodifferentiation (bell stage)

Which disease lead to MI – thrombosis(I pick atherosclerosis,but I think it is thrombosis, other two wasn’t relate – (MI usually caused by thrombus formation)

Acute adrenal insufficiency : gingival hyperplasia b. cardiovascular collapse c. hypotension d. ketoacidosis – ASDA

Low contrast- kvp (Long scale, low contrast, hight kvp)

Which doesn’t recur- AOT

Antibiotic treatment- LAP -> Tetra

Seizures grand mal phenytoin (and Carbamazepine – Tegretol)-

Petit mal – ethosuximide – Ethosuximide in the treatment of absence (petit mal) seizures.

Overdose cocaine mydriasis

Overdose opioids miosis


Short clinical crown- what to do- read from prostho decks, proxy grooves if lack F-L resistance (buccal – retention / proximal – resistance)

Pedunculated leision – papilloma

Dry socket sedative = dressing

Benzoyl peroxide decomposition by tertiary amine in chemically activated resin self cured – a chemical activator like dimethyl-p-toluidine (a tertiary amine) is added to the monomer (MMA) to decompose the benzoyl peroxide initiator into free

Excess bilirubin in blood? kernicterus

Epi reversal? Phentolamine – Phentolamine (OraVerse) is used in dentistry to reverse soft tissue anesthesia more quickly after procedures involving a local anesthetic with a vasoconstrictor. Alpha adrenoceptor blockers, such as phentolamine, inhibit the vasoconstrictor effect of epinephrine but not the vasodilator effect of epinephrine. The administration of alpha blockers results in epinephrine reversal. (Mosby)

Pt shows reaction to the LA vasoconstrictor so to recover the reactions u will administer: Alpha 1 antagonist – the ZOSINSSSS

Which of the following drugs is most effective as an antidepressant?

Diazepam b. Reserpine c. Amitriptyline

Tricyclic antidepressants have a prominent side effect that most nearly resembles the usual pharmacological action of a. Codeine Atropine ans c. Ephedrine

If you have two distribution that are asymmetrical that’s means a) normal

skewed is the ans c) bimodal

Meds not given to a pt who has epinephrine – MOA and Tricyclic antidepressant (Also Levodopa)

Complication of temporal arteritis – blindness

Gtr best for – 3 narrow wall defect

If the patient has maxillary protrusion and we need to pull the maxillary backward which we will use

a) straight pull gear b) cervical pull gear c) face bow d) reverse bull gear

Cervical-pull headgear à consists of a cervical neck strap (as anchorage) and a standard facebow inserting into the headgear tube of the maxillary first molar attachments. The objectives of treatment with these types of headgear are to restrict anterior growth of the maxilla and to distalize and erupt maxillary molars. A MAJOR DISADVANTAGE OF TREATMENT USING CERVICAL HEADGEAR IS POSSIBLE EXTRUSION OF THE MAXILLARY MOLARS.

What make the reaction on the one that has monomer and activator that was using it for prepaing the secondary impression on the study cast on the lap . its activated by A) exothermic reaction b) MMA with the monomer

438. Gtr– involves coronal movement of pdl

Antidepressants serotonin / SSRI-fluoxitene zoloft,both- SNRI TCA–>Amitryptilline

Pain medication for alchoholic – OXYCODONE

Fetal alcohol syndrome – Mid face deficiencies, cleft lip (Individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome may have cleft lip with or without cleft palate)

Antibioticis of maythenia gravis – penicillin safe (erythro increases weakness)

If no enough space what tooth pop out of arch maxi and – First premolars

B blockers – Glucagon

Acetamenophen – N Acetyl


Xylitol is best used anticariogenic when it’s a: mouthwash, tablet, chewing gum, varnish

Xylitol gum used for :- – DECREDSED SALIVATION (xerostomy) – PREVENT CARIES

determines which drugs are to be sold by prescription only: Schedulle 2 and

3 must have a written prescription. (The only difference is that class 2 cannot be refilled whereas class 3 can be refilled even over the phone.)

Contraindication of RCT – vertical root fracture (also Uncontrolled DM, Recent MI, Leukemia)

Resistance for short crown proximal grooves

Laser in periodontal diseases use for sulcular debridment

452. Meperidine? sintetic opioid, narcotic, less potent than morphine, more than codiene, shorter duration of action, interaction with MOA can cause convulsions.

Which study can show incidence – descriptive (cross sectional shows prevalence Cohort is for incidence)

Theory of stress and how affect immunity – Stress induce cortisol and reduce immunity

Objective fear after previous painful stimulus (own experience)

Objective fear is one that you experience directly. If, for example, you had a painful dental visit while having a tooth extracted; the next time you needed a tooth extracted you would be fearful because of this prior experience. If you told your friend about the bad experience and he needed a tooth extracted, and he had fear, this would be subjective fear.

Thyroid crisis symptoms hyperT HR increased (High Bp, high body temperature, persistant sweating tachycardia, high fever)

Hypoxia sign – cyanosis (Cyanosis and increase in pulse rate too – DD)

Signs of oxygen want Cyanosis 2. Pulse rate decrease 3. Tachycardia

Antibiotic in gingiva tetracyclines

Wheelchair Q – sliding

How base metal prevent corrosion – chromium

What is the most common psych disorder? Depression

Leakage in amalgam decrease with age

Systemic desensitization – hierarchy of slowly increasing anxiety stimulus

16 kg anasthesia calculation 70,4 mg

Most common emergency in dental clinic – asthma or syncope

Most common respiratory emergency it is hyperventilation (no asthma in options)

Most common respiratory emergency it is Asthma…I was so happy no hyperventilation in the options

Primary stress bearing areas in dentures – max – primary ridge …secondary rugae mand – primary buccal shelf – and also primary if good ridge

Primary areas of support in max and mandibular. Thought we’re maxillary ridge and buccal shelf for mand but options were not together: For mandibular complete denture, the residual ridges if large and broad, are also considered primary support

In USA most dental pay is – out of pocket self pay

Which is more important? Chroma, value (value is VIP and choosing process is HUE first then VALUE then CHROMA)

Which show saturation of color? – chroma

Radiation water lysis – Hydrolysis of water


Facebow transfer – hinge axis

Arcon vs non-acron – Arcon resembles tmj

Dental lamina appears at which week 6 th week

Distolingual extension of mand, denture which muscle sup constrictor

Incisal edge of anterior teeth touch where? vermilion border

Bur for burnishing porcelain = diamond

Sodium hypochloride does all except (Chelation)

Impresion material moisture tolerant – Polysulfides (because they are hydrophobic).

Polyvinyl siloxanes – excellent DIMENSIONAL STABILITY and very low permanent deformation.

Behcet’s syndrome associated with aphthous ulcers

High school children have marginal gingivitis

Ginseng contraindicated with salicyclic acid

Erosion – GERD

Initiation: supernumerary/missing teeth

Bell – 2 types : morphodifferentiation: shape!!! histodifferetioation: d.imperfecta a.imperfecta

Apposition: enamel hypoPLASIASSS

Moisture contamination in amalgam

a) Increases delayed expansion

Something related to amalgam strength

DELAYED EXPANSION of amalgam restorations is associated with insufficient trituration & condensation, and amalgam contamination by moisture during trituration and condensation (MAIN cause of failures). – BB


Central giant cell granuloma is seen with pts with condition of /? Hyperparathyroidism – Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism masquerading as central giant cell granuloma in a renal transplant

Which cement causes irritation to pulp – zinc phosphate

Sialilitithiasis is found whew = warton duct (submandibular duct was as an oprtion)

– calcified mass or sialolith forms within a salivary gland, usually in the duct of the submandibular gland (also termed “Wharton’s duct”).

Kid came to clinic touched everything and last he came to dentist and allowed to keep probe in the mouth what the behavior? – Desensitization

Digoxin – it is used for congestive heart disease, atrial fibrillation and when you drink in conjunction with diurectic can increase the toxicity of digoxin

Contraindication for nitrous oxide (nasal congestion)

Best place for implant ant mand

Solution to keep an avulsed tooth hanks worst -> water

Aplastic anemia -> chloramphenicol

Pseudomembranous colitis (clindamycin)

Therapeutic effect (safety)

No to do w asthm – Give Oxygen?? – We can give oxygen in asthma (acute attack – give oxygen and albuterol / severe asthma ONLY – epinephrine) 3mg OF 1:1000 EPINEPHRINE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED SUBCUTANEOUSLY

No contraindication w asthma – Nitrious oxide

Gingival graft contraindications (pocket below alveolar crest) – A FGG is used to increase the zone of attached gingiva and possibility of gaining root coverage. NOT used with DEEP WIDE RECESSIONS.

Gingival graft contraindicated when: a) pocket is below the alveolar crest b) pocket is below free gingival groove c) excessive keratinized tissue

Which LA is good without vasoconstrictor? Mepi

Bipolar disorder lithium (LITHIUM – current drug of choice to treat the MANIC PHASE of bipolar disorder)

On which receptors Epi works a1 a2 b1 I choose a1 but not sure – We know it is

all but it affects beta receptors predominantly.

Morphine overdose = naloxone

Porcelain porosity = Inadequate condensation

512. Unbundling – when doctor describes the whole treatment in different parts, separate charge code instead combine.

Most commonly used TCA Amitryptyline – AMITRIPTYLINE (ELAVlL) – the most widely used TRICYCLIC ANTI-DEPRESSANT to treat unipolar disorder (depression).

Cocaine produces vomiting by = activating CTZ in brain

Ques about H1 and H2 receptor –> H1 smooth muscle, H2 gastrointestinal

Down Syndrome – macroglossia

Ectodermal dysplasia= scarce hair

Patient smokes pipe and has red bumps on palate= Nicotine stomatitis (hard palate)

Arch discrepancy after loss of which tooth = Mand 2 nd molar – The premature loss of the mandibular primary canine reflects insufficient arch size in the anterior region.

Which is NOT used to inhibit salivary secretion = Pilocarpine

Osteogenesis imperfecta with = DI


Rapport active listening

Caries not depend on quantity of carbs

Radiograph id tip of the nose, external auditory meatus

Cavernous thrombosis infection via anterior triangle

Tooth mostly involved in perio relapse Max 2nd molar – Furcation involvement of maxillary 2nd molar has the poorest prognosis following therapy / Trifurcation on maxillary 1st molar are the most difficult of all to root plane (DD)

Warfarin test – INR/PT

Why you do not use fovea as indicator – it blocks minor salivary glands

Sausage like appearance on radiograph sialolithiasis or sialodenitis (I pick the first one, not sure) – SIALODOCHITIS: within the gland sausage-link appearance. Sialodochitis (also termed ductal sialadenitis), is inflammation of the duct system of a salivary

Antiretraction valves prevent cross contamination (between patients)

Hepatitis A positive can checked by

a) HBcg b) HBSg group c) no treatment d) alkaline triphostate – (Hep A infection is identified by HAV-specific antibodies (IgM if acute, IgG if past disease)

Composite and bleaching wait 1 week before composite

Which is a characteristic of a gold inlay? A: Axial walls converge toward the pulpal floor

Ortho treatment before veneer placement

By having excess amount of monomer in acrylic can create excessive amounts of what: shrinkage

Dementia pt, which one the most challenging? 1-ext 2-denture is the ans

3-srp 4-amalgam

If you have 2 proximal cavities

a) you will fill smaller, prepare larger first ans

you will fill larger and prepare the smaller first

you will fill smaller and prepare the smaller first

d) you will fill the larger and prepare the larger first

Pin retained – Which statement is not correct? increasing in number of pin strengthen amalgam

Best biopsy for small bean sized white lesion? a) Incisional b) excisional is the ans

c) brush

Steroid dose need medical consultant 20 mg for 2 weeks 2 year

Osteosarcoma = PDL widening

Patient presents with blow to face and horizontal fracture of a previously endodontically treated molar. The fracture is 2mm from the anatomical crown. What should the dentist do?

Treat root canal with Calcium Hydroxide

Place temporary crown and revisit in 3 months


d. Ext ans

Pt with MOD done 1 month ago, complained it hurt when he bits

A) polymerization shrinkage B) leakage c ) cracked tooth is the ans

Most common Impacted tooth – Mandi 3m , maxi 3m, max canine

Ludwig angina spaces – Submand, Sublingual, Submental

Xerostomia due to medications



Warthin tumor which gland affects – parotid

Sulfur granules and lumpy jaw = actinomycosis

Most common infectious stage in syphilis – secondary

Hand and foot lesion which virus – coxsackievirus

REGIONAL ODONTODYSPLASIA: involves the hard tissues that are derived from both epithelia (enamel) and mesenchymal (dentin and cementum). The teeth in a region or quadrant of the maxilla or mandible are affected to the extent that they exhibit short roots, open apical foramina, and enlarged pulp chambers – ghost teeth. The cause is unknown and because of the poor quality of the affected teeth, their

removal is usually indicated.

Which of these has pain same to tooth pain (hsv/VZV/max sinusitis) – Shingles (vzv) can mimic tooth

How to differentiate ANUG from primary herpetic gingivostomatits – Intact interdental papillae in herpes

Question about lesion in eye has a name subnour something like this i picked phemphigus but it is mmp – The most common and feared diagnosis associated with symblepharon is Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid (MMP)

Cobblestone appearance – Papillary hyperplasia

Which taste bud affected in geographic tongue – Filliform

Multiple myeloma starts = bone pain

Not vasodilaltor = cocaine

Not a(alpha) blocker = metoprolol

No nitrious oxide = in 1 st trimester

Cooling while implant placement – The bone is prepared with special metallic burs driven at slow speeds with copious water- cooling

In implant preparation, which of the following can be used? A) hydroxyapatite irrigation b) High Speed Hand Piece c) Low torque d)Air Coolant

Crevicular fluid cells PMNs

Opioid= mu receptors

Full dentures clicking = increased VDO

Carcinoma vs carcinoma in situ = no invasion

Fungal infection = nystatin

Systemic fungal = fluconazole

Erythroplakia= carcinoma in situ – Like “leukoplakia”, ERYTHROPLAKIA has no histologic connotation, but most erythroplakias are histologically diagnosed as severe epithelial dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive squamous cell carcinoma. – DD

Open bite= LeFort 1

Most allergic metal = nickel

FRANKFORT-HORIZONTAL PLANE – constructed by drawing a line connecting


Labiodental sounds and what do they determine? Labiodental sound (fricative)- f,v,ph, formed by maxillary incisor contacting the wet/dry line of mandibular lip. This sounds help determining the position of incisal edge of maxillary anterior

Open apex tx: Vital apexogenesis / Non vital apexification

Mouthguard= MPDS

Polyether= sticks to teeth


RPD connector fracture = do soldering

Traumatic neuroma= mental nerve region

Primary mand 2 nd resembles – permanent mandibular first molar

Access opening for mand molar – Trapezoid

MWF = reduce pocket LINING

No gingivoectomy = with thin gingiva (An adequate amount of attached gingiva must be present before a gingivectomy is done, otherwise the result will be an area with minimal or no attached ) – DD

Drug testing = clinical trials

Where you give GA? 2 year old kid needs lot of restoration

Fearful patient how you respond? intoduce tools or TSD

Introduce instruments and tools = Desensitization

Smokeless tobacco – verrucous carcinoma – verrucous carcinoma (Associated with smokeless tobacco habit).- DD

Fracture w paresthesia= angle of mandible

Minimum amount gutta percha left in canal after placement of post? 2 or 3 or 5 mm (IT’S 4mm).

Buccal-lingual bone width necessary for 4 mm implant. NO 6mm in options! I took


Battery – Treatment without consent form

Pt with dialysis, when to do treatment? 1 day after dialysis

Harder area to floss – Mesial maxillary 1 pm

If open bite 8 mm, which kind of treatment do you do? Surgery, LeFort 1


Question about pigmentation in options was Neurofibromatosis and Preuz- Jeghers. Pay attention to cafe-au-late spots! Both have pigmentation, but only Neurof. has cafe-au late! – Café-au-lait found in VON RECKLINGHAUSEN’S DISEASE (NEUROFIBROMATOSIS) and Albright’s Syndrome (McCune-Albright Syndrome)

Osteoradionecrosis? More in mandible/ more in maxilla/ 42 gy? According to dd its more than 40 gry and more in mandible (controversial)

How treat root caries? Composite, amalgam, GIC

Best filling for class 5 – GIC

Mucocele where most common? Upper lip, lower lip, side of tongue 602. Ginco Biloba contraindication? all anticoagulants

Cleft lip which embryo week? It was 6-9 the only reasonable option I took cleft lip 6 weeks – 7 weeks

cleft palate 8-12 weeks – decks

Bleeding few days after extraction? fibrinolysis.

Transillumination: craze – full tooth illuminate / crack – light stopped – not full tooth

/ sialolith – in children

When do you use Laser or Electrocoagulation surgery intraorally? Only logical option was capillary bleeding!

Motion sickness. Treatment: scopolamine

When is gingiva inflammation least expected? I was torn between Xerostomia

and Lack of keratinized gingiva. I chose lack of keratinized gingiva, although in


Dental School we learned, that when keratinized gingiva is missing, gingivitis is programmed! But, Xerostomia sounded worse, so I took lack of keratinized gingiva!

Forceps for upper PM – 150 and 150A

What is not true about Xerostomia? Few very obvious true options, I chose it is extremely difficult to treat it with Saliva substitutes and

about V-form caries, tip towards the DEJ (interproximal/smooth surface)

Burn mouth syndrome due to: candida

Warthin tumor – 2nd most benign salivary gland tumor more in PAROTID GLAND

and more common reason is smoking.

about Pemphigoid – I think, there was an option with basement membrane and hemidesmosomes

All are advantages of per oral sedatives in the dental clinic except? There was an option about GI absorption, and well controlled effect, that I

Best topical Antibiotic agent? Options were H2O2, CHX, Ethanol and something else. I chose CHX

3 Qs about TAD (=Temporary Anchorage Device). Where it gets its stability from? stability from cortical bone and increase stability if placed – The primary stability of miniscrews is a result of mechanical interlocking of the threads with cortical bone. Placement of miniscrews perpendicular to cortical bone to take advantage of biological and biomechanical stability when applying heavy orthopedic forces.

Tx for Status NO Diazepam in options!!! There was Midazolam in the

options, and I chose that! Phenytoin could be an option too.

2 y.o. uncooperative child. What to do to examine? GA, Papoose board, Restrict by dental assistant, Restrict by parent.

Fluoride function on Enamel – reduces solubility

Most secure indicator for future caries? Bacteria, something else, salivary flow (the more the better)

How to avoid cheek bites? increase the horizontal overlap in post teeth

Xerostomia causing drugs work on which receptor: Parasympathetic cholinergic

Drug conjugation. Add molecule to drug (to make it ionized so less fat soluble and more water soluble)

Wrought wire can “do something” around 0,2 mm to the abutment tooth if minimal wire length is 4, 6 or 8 mm? I took 4mm! I don’t have any idea what they were talking about

Whats the most favorable taper of abutment to make RPD in part of inch: 0.02– 01 – 0.03 – 0.039

Most common to see in a teenage girl with buccal erupted canine? Anterior deep bite, recession, 2 others – “…The former displayed significantly higher frequencies at adolescence of ectopic eruption (mostly maxillary canines), anterior cross-bite, extreme maxillary overjet, deep bite, and ”

Abutment height in implant restorations selected according to? Only logical

option was according to implant lenght! I immediately thought about the abutment- implant ratio!

Cocain effect? contraction of dilator pupillae, contraction of sphincter pupillae, 2 other stupid

Used as topical LA? Cocain, Benzo, Lido, Bupivacaine – Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug used topically in dentistry –


Face rash, defect on heart, kidney and blood vessels? Lupus

Cause for Hairy Leukoplakia? HIV, EBV, HSV, Candida (don’t confuse w/ hairy tongue)

Dry socket – sedative, dressing no antibiotic, no curettage

Most difficult to maintain space? In a 9 y.o missing permanent MX M1 – 5 y.o missing primary MD M1 – 6 o missing primary MD M2, one more I don’t remember.

After RCT on a tooth with sinus tract, what is the tx for the sinus tract Funny options! We all know, that NO therapy is needed, right?! 😉

Disease with excessive bone production, but less bone resorption? Paget disease

was the only logic option

Mouth breather have? Open bite, long face, deep bite etc. Open bite and long face

Typical face feature for muscle weakness? Same like mouth breather. They could be the best couple – long face, open bite

Kid with ADHD what ? Methylphenidate , Amphetamines

Incision for palate Y incision – a double “Y” incision should be made over the midline of the torus. (DD)

Pain drug for the night? naproxen – 8 hour relief

Pt had tooth extraction want to sleep at night whst u give ? naproxen

Side effect of opioids, all except Side effects of opioids are sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, physical dependence, tolerance, and respiratory depression. NO gastric ulcers, NO insomnia, NO somnolence, NO diarrhea.

Lateral positioned flap – the option I chose was to maintain or improve keratinized gingiva

Most common cause of amalgam failure à unquestionable moisture (DD)

Q. about rejecting null hypothesis. Type 1 error

What is the strongest point of statistics? 648. Selectivity / Sensitivity in clinical trials

on clediocranial dysplasia – clavicle, supernumerary

In USA most dental payment – cash out of pocket

Restauration in anterior teeth done weeks ago, filling too light. What is the most conservative Keyword here is conservative!!! – Tint

Which shows saturation of color? chroma

Chronic periodontitis most seen in? male african american

Face-bow – hinge

In English the s/ch/sh sounds, how is anterior teeth position – very little distance betw. anterior

Major connector function – stability rigidity

Why do we do apexification? – non vital tooth, apical barrier for rct after 3 months if calcified (“induce root development” is apexogenesis for vital tooth, apexification for non vital for apical barrier!)

Most common seizure in children – febrile

for atypicaly erupting permanent tooth, with gingival margin above CEJ. Gingivectomy, Apical positioned flap, others (Apical positioned flap, to not waste keratinized gingiva)

Best graft material – autograft

Where do you get the most amount of graft material from? illiac

Pka has effect on – onset


All can be Dif. Diagnosis of Leukoplakia except. – I think I chose Verrucous leukoplakia, just because they look so different – White sponge nevus is often mistaken for leukoplakia BUT appears early in life. Focal (frictional) keratosis: common white lesion caused by chronic friction on the mucosa. Differentiated from idiopathic leukoplakia because cause is known. Leukoedema disappears with stretching. (DD)

Collimation purpose – Reduce size of beam

Calculation of incidence index – Out of 1000 patients —-> 200 diseased patients last year, 300 this 300-200=100, 100/1000= 0,1

Kid with bad OH what ortho tx? Fixed, removable, no tx 667. Veneer facial reduction – 5mm

If a Porcelain to metal fused anterior crown too opaque, what”s the reason? less 2nd plane reduction

Perio-Endo lesion – first endo

MRI how does that work?- Clinical magnetic resonance imaging (clinical MRI) is an imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields, radio waves, and field gradients to generate images of the organs in the MRI does not involve x-rays, which distinguishes it from computed tomography (CT or CAT).

Drug against kidney failure, what’s the best to analyze and prove its action?

Creatinine test

If lower complete denture overextended buccodistaly what structure impaired?


In upper complete denture overextended buccodistaly what structure impaired?


Pseudomembranous colitis – Clindamycin

Patient has a palatal torus that extends beyond posterior palatal seal into the soft palatal area, and in need of complete What to do? Remove it

Ignoring the pt bad behavior – extinguishing

Which tooth more prone to caries? Maxillary 1st molar (Kaplan)

High kV? Long wave lenght low energy; Short wave length high energy; 2 more combinations

Dexterity – floss (5 brush 8 floss)

about a kid with Autism. Repetitive and Sensitive to light and high volume

about ACE-blockers – It actually directly blocks the Angiotensin-Converting- Enzyme, not the Angiotensin – blocks the enzyme which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II.

Actinomycosis – sulfur granules

Vertical root fracture most commonly seen? Mandibular molars

Crown to root fracture most commonly seen? Maxillary anterior

Perforation of anterior maxillary incisors during RCT access in general most common on which surface? Mesial – Maxillary Anterior teeth: Mesial perforation due to distal axial inclination. Mand. Ant: LABIAL perforation due to lingual inclination

Cast impression least acurate? Reversible Hydrocolloids, Irreversible Hydrocolloids, Polyether, one more

Q on Chronic Heart


(interfere w/ the renin-angiotensin system, are required of all patients w/ cardiac


failure unless contraindicated), VASODILATORS (including hydralazine and nitrates, are used when the use of ACE inhibitors is not possible), BETA BLOCKERS (should be used in patients w/left ventricular dysfunction, unless contraindicated), DIGITALIS can improve symptoms and exercise tolerance by increasing cardiac contractility, other medications include oxygen and morphine. ASPIRIN, NSAIDs, and CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS SHOULD BE AVOIDED. Patient treatment and dental management considerations: prolonged rest, administration of oxygen, digitalis (patients are prone to nausea and vomiting), diuretics/vasodilators (patients are prone to orthostatic hypotention; avoid excessive epinephrine), dicumarol (patients may have bleeding problem). The beneficial effects of digitalis in congestive heart failure results in part from the fact that digitalis causes a decrease in end-diastolic volume, an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output, a decrease in central venous pressure, and a decrease in rate of the heart where tachycardia exists. Digitalis glycosides generally

decrease edema, decrease heart size, decrease heart rate, and decrease residual diastolic volume.

Neuropraxia – I chose the option about damaged axon, but intact epineurium – FALSE -> Neuropraxia is the mildest form of neural injury. Local axon demylineation occurs at the site of However, the axon, the endoneurium, the perineurium, and the epineurium are INTACT.

If a patient has had a car accident and an assumption of broken cervical spine, which xray is contraindicated? Waters, SMV, Pano, CT

about Sterilization.

With xerostomia. All is true for the indications to manufacture a complete denture with METAL basis except? More acuracity, More wetability, Low cost, More durability

comes back after two weeks with discolored margins. Cause? amine

Qs about preparation before grafting. I chose the option to remove all granular tissue

Carbamacepin used in? They give you very confusing options, that look similar!!! I chose nerve pain.

Which postion is patient related? VDO, CR, VPR, ICP

What will most likely cause the odontoblastic processe to retract in the dentinal tubules? Desiccation? (or Depth to which dentinal tubules are cut?)

All is correct about sclerotic dentin except? I was torn between extremely low permeability or better bond with restorative materials compared to normal dentin..

Which study doesn’t show cause and effect. – cross sectional

Two questions on Incisal guidance.

What is true about remineralized – more resistant to future acid

– submandibular gland

Patient complains of pain due to oral mucositis after radiotherapy. The pain is best treated with? a) Nystatin b) Benzyl hydrochloride (BENZYDAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE) c) Topical corticosteroid d) Morphine

Characteristic feature of AML? Auer rods

Pindborg tumor or CEOT – Liesegang rings / rx: snow appearance

Elective RCT – recent MI

Gagging patient, what’s the tx in a long Desensitization

Exhaling wheezing. – Asthma

Adverse effect of codiene. Miosis, nausea


Culture sensitivity – It was also about an infection that couldn’t be treated with particular AB

Not easy Qs. about pontic

Action of beta blocker on smooth muscle? vasoconstriction

What is true about if a general dentist decides to perform a treatment which is normally done by – No maleficiency in options! There was something like, “He has to perform as good as a specialist, if he does the tx”

about orthostatic hypotension. – Patients taking diuretics/vasodilators are prone to orthostatic hypotension, also avoid excessive EPI. – A fainting spell that occurs due to a rapid fall in BP when moving from the supine to the upright position when getting out of the dental chair. The symptoms are similar to simple fainting, but the condition is related to positioning. Amyl Nitrite (Nitrites): Adverse Effects à orthostatic hypotension & headache.

Pain killer in pt who has just withdrawn alcohol? Hydrocodone (opioid)

Alcoholic pt pain med? Put (if not in option hydrocodone)

Side effect of erythromycin? Gastrointestinal disturbances – GI tract upset is the most common side effect of the erythromycins (take with food).

Risk of extraction of upper Molar? Palatal root goes to sinus

Risk of extraction of #32? Damage to L nerve (IAN before Lingual)

What’s unethical? Charge more to difficult pts, Raise fees to particular group of insurance.

Radiopacity in lower molar area, no I put idiopathic schlerosis

Pt with bleeding gums and skin lesions? What condition – Leukemia

2 yrs old intrudes incisor all the way in but doesn’t touch Vital. What to do? Ortho extrusion then splint? Leave it

14 is intruded in middle age pt, has distal caries, how to level plane of occlusion?

Extract, Intrusion, Crown

724. Mode: The most frequent measurement in a set of data.

What type of study is if they look for prevalence? Cross Sectional Socioeconomic influences the risk of developing perio and caries T 727. Due to this there’s risk of perio disease at ALL ages? F

What is that a drug has the strongest effect? Potency – Efficacy

Treatment of LAP – Put SRP and abx

Tx of perio with calculus on smoker. Put: debridement, oh, tobacco cessation advice.

When referring a mesialized 32 with irreversible pulpitis with curved roots for RCT, what’s the least important: curve roots, Canal calcification, Difficulty with anesthesia, Inclination of tooth (chose this)

U see nasty white lesion on floor of mouth, suspect of except: Scc, Verrucous carcinoma, Leukoplakia, Nicotinic stomatitis (chose this)

Same lesion what do u do first to dx? Cytology Excision Biopsy Nothing Wait a month.

Glass fiber post compared to custom made post: Tooth conservation.

Less chances of fracture.

Patient has tissue on palate due to denture, how to treat? Laser Excision Nothing

Not wear denture for a while

Funtion of the internal part of an implant? they didn’t mention hex i chose antirotation


Short molar how to get extra retention? Groove on buccal

When doing protrusive on articulator, do you raise the pin? YES

What resto gives more retention for a short crown? Mod onlay, Veneer with grooves, 3/4 with proximal grooves (chose this, not sure)

Non-nitrate vasodilator for angina? Dipyridemole, nitroglycerin, lisinopril, isoflorophtate

What are filters for? Filtration reduces patient dose, contrast, & film

Absorbs not useful xray (long length), reducing the patient dosage.

IAN anesthesia not well, what accessory nerve might be causing pain?

Mylohyoideo nerve

U did resto, patient comes back after 6 months with pain to sweet and bitting?

Reversible pulpitis

Lower molar, no pain. Has radiolucency on all apex of roots, why? Spontaneous necrosis, Vertical fracture, horizontal fracture

Target = tungsten? T

What happens if you increase more liquid to ZOE? more soluble?

Area most susceptible of caries: pits and fissure, above the contact, cervical of contact

ANGINA: NITROGLYCERIN, sometimes propranolol, calcium channel blockers, such as verapamil. Angina is primarily treated with nitroglycerin. Drugs that can be used in the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris: propranolol, nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, pentaerythritol tetranitrate – DD

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor drug with the longest half-life (SSRI) –

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Advantage of glass fiber posts – Similar modulus of elasticity as dentin

What is the indication for an apicoectomy? Failed root canal that cannot be reinstrumented b. Root canal that is difficult to perform

Example of someone who comes into the office and has a belligerent attitude and says that every dentist she has seen has been incompetent and then 30 minutes into the appointment she starts praising you and saying that you are the best dentist she has had, this person’s personality is best described as: Narcissistic b. Borderline


Halogen light and LED light which is true:

a. LED light does not polymerize unless has champhoroquinone initiator

LED light cannot be battery operated

LED light bulb has a short life span

LED light emits wavelength 350-370

754. Amantadine (Symmetrel)- anti-viral agent that enters the CNS to treat Parkinson’s disease by potentiating dopaminergic responses.

Osteoporosis: Thin traveculae

Which of the following describes growth after menarche: a. Increases b. Stays constant c. Stops (Mosby: general body tissues including muscles and bone accelerate growth at the same time reproductive tissues )

Implant is successful? 1mm bone loss in year one, 0.2 every year after b. 1 mm bone loss year one, 0.02mm every year after – Mosby and DD say 0.02 mm, no misprints!

When analyzing the arch distance which space do they analyze? 1- mesial of canine to canine 2- mesial of first premolar to first premolar 3- mesial of first molar to


first molar ( I think the answer is 3) – Mosby: distal from second primary molar to distal of second primary molar on other side

Which one of the tooth is most prone to cracked tooth o syndrome? 1-Maxillary premolar 2- mandibular premolar 3-maxillar first molar 4-mandibular second molar – (mandibular first molars followed by 2nd mandibular molar and maxillary premolars)

Pt comes to you with complete denture that is loose, she wants a new one, and there is redness under the upper denture with papillary hyperplasia? What is your immediate management ? Excision of lesion, Tissue conditioner on the same denture. Make impression and fabrication a

The roubela causing mental retardation is caused by? 1- genetically 2- acquired

3- chromosal

Permanent max lat inc calcification starts when – 10-12 months (max centrals 3-4 months)

Primary principle of behavior modification a) stimulus cause behavior b) behavior has consequences

If pt was addicted to alcohol and had a treatment for his addiction, and for 18 months successfully is not drinking. He is considered to be completely recovered from addiction. T/F

Which tooth has most common crown-to-root fracture: max anterior incisors, mand ant incisors, max molars, mand molars

Most common with chronic periodontitis: Hispanic male, Hispanic female, Black male, Black female

Prevalence of cells in gingival sulcus: neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells

Mild facets on occlusal surfaces in primary dentition indicate: normal function, indicate early malocclusion, parafunction habits, occlusal interferences

NUG clinically resembles: primary herpetic gingivitis

Actinomycosis of Jaw commonly leads to: diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis, or

ruptures through facial neck soft tissues via multiple drain sinuses

Disadvantage of partial thickness flap is: unable to increase zone keratinised gingiva, or dissection from vascular supply source – A or missed option, i have disadvantage in my notes lack of surgical flexibility (limited visibilty and access) from old rq

Class II drugs: Percocet, Vicodin, Tylenol 3

Studies proved that caries can be arrested by placement of: Ca hydroxide, GIC, or sealing well the margins of restorations – On the basis of the studies cited in this review, one can state that there is substantial evidence that the removal of all infected dentin in deep carious lesions is not required for successful caries treatment— provided that the restoration can seal the lesion from the oral environment 774. RCT was done one year ago, periapical RL became larger since then, all can explain this, except: Apical scar, proximity to incisive canal, different angulation of x-


As for ectodermal dysplasia is the lack of development of zygoma, for cleidocranial dysplasia it is: clavicle

Cleidocranial à supernumerary

Ranula develops because of: stone, or trauma to the duct – Mucocele = trauma 778. Min count of granulocytes for elective surgery: 1,000mm3, 15,000, 100,000, 10,000… 779. In children and adolescents most common cause of xerostomia? 1) sjron,

2)salivary gland obstruction 3) nocturnal mouth breathing


Varicosity under tongue: because of untreated HTN (there was not age in options) 781. Pt has vasovagal syncope, you do all, except: A. Administer oxygen B. Place in Tredenburg position C. Give epinephrine D. Apply spirits of ammonia E. Maintain


Minimum of hydrocortisone for the Pt to be considered suppressed if taken daily:

20 mg before 2 weeks for 2 years, 10 mg before 2 weeks for 2 years, 100 mg same..

In modified Widman flap it is: full-thickness flap, or partial flap Modified Widman Flap – The modified Widman procedure is a replaced mucoperiosteal (full thickness) flap procedure.

Inferior alveolar artery is a branch from: external carotid artery, or internal

Mandibular tori are to be removed before constructing the denture. T/F if interfere 786. You need to put in surgery consent about the risk of damaging lingual nerve. T/F 787. Side effects of albumin are all, except: tachycardia, stimulation of CNS, insomnia,

increased salivation, diarrhea. (people say it is “atropine” written wrong, so answer here is salivation).

The Q about relation of consistency and frequency of maintenance perio visits and patient compliance and long-term warranty

A patient’s compliance with schedule maintenance visits has no effect on the long-term retention of periodontally treated. Frequency of maintenance visits has no correlation with the development of periodontal pockets and gingivitis.

1. Both statements are false. (ANS)

Both statements are

The fist is true, the second is false.

The first us false, the second is true.

With the damage of oculomotor nerve where eye will move: (there were 2 directions in every option, like upward and medial, or downward and lateral…) downward and outward, ptosis – Oculomotor controls superior rectus (elevation and adduction), medial rectus (adduction), inferior rectus (depression and adduction) and inferior oblique (elevation and abduction) – FA

With the trauma of CN VI nerve in which direction difficult to stare: (one option), downward, upward, lateral, medial

792. MOA of sulfanilamide (sulfonamide): bacteriostatic, inhibit protein synthesis, COMPETE with PABA to inhibit PABAs actions, which prevents bacterial folic acid synthesis to inhibit cellular growth.

Pt on sulfonamides, what will be the most likely side effect that being a dentist you can say? ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME? – EM is a type of allergic hypersensitivity reaction in response to medications, infections, or illness. Medications associated with erythema multiforme include sulfonamides, penicillins, barbiturates , &

It is the preferred to quite smoking on the day when full extractions series scheduled. T/F

To be able to burnish a margin of a gold restoration which one should be exceed? a) Modulus of elasticity b) Yield strength

What impression material has a natural affinity to water? (no hydrochloride in options) Polyether (hydrophilic)

Initiate Chantix week before planning on quitting T/F – Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction. Begin CHANTIX dosing one week before this date.


In anterior mandibular teeth there is some crowding. The gingival recession can develop because of all, except: frenum pull, asthma inhaler use, plaque, not enough overbite…

Know immunosupressive drugs: (will give you 4 of them, you rule out one) Also know their side effects more than candida. – I answered Candida but I did not know what was this drug about…Guys, memorize this mycophenolate drug is immunosuppressant!

Mycophenolate (CellCept) is used with other medications to help prevent transplant organ rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, heart, and liver transplants.

Q just before this one asking all are immunosuppressive except one? Methylphenidate – (treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy), among the more serious adverse reactions are nervousness, insomnia , and

What can decrease the effect of Warfarin: liver insufficiency, stimulation of hepatic microsomal metabolism – an increased response to warfarin would be expected in patients with liver

Pt with bizarre behavior and confusion, you administer: insulin, epinephrine,


The reason to mounting study models is to observe: vertical dimension of occlusion, vertical dimension of rest, interdental occlusion, size and location of anterior

After polishing which appears first on teeth: material alba, biofilm, pellicle

Deepest part of occlusal rest is in: central fossa, marginal ridge – The deepest part of an occlusal rest preparation should be inside the lowered marginal ridge. The marginal ridge is lowered to provide bulk and to accommodate the origin of the occlusal rest with the least occlusal – McCracken


Which agency initiated Hazzard communication program: CDC, OSHA, EPA

Hazzard communication program is about: protecting from and managing blood-born and infectious exposure, protecting from chemical exposures

Primary teeth shed prematurely in: cyclic neutropenia? – Yes, Perio disease may result in loosening of teeth and early tooth loss in young children.

There was x-ray with upper canine with still forming apex, looked basically normal in my opinion, but had in canal some obliterated oval structures…asked it is due to: AI, DI, DD, regional odontogenic dysplasia. Had permanent max canine still forming apex, yes with some premolars and 2nd molars still forming apex too. Those obliterated structures I noticed in both upper canines, but Q asked only about left one. It was regular width canal with pulpal stones. Tooth also was showing half out and the rest under gingiva still. I googled, found some research article where it saying if pulpal stones are seen in several teeth in young permanent teeth the condition is

systemic and characteristic to DD – Dentin dysplasia TYPE II (coronal dysplasia): color

of primary teeth is opalescent (amber-colored) color of permanent teeth is normal, coronal pulps of permanent teeth are usually enlarged (”thistle tube”) and may contain pulp stones (DD)

If there is narrow attached gingiva next to maxillary second molar what you cannot do: apically displaced flap, gingivectomy, distal wedge – Distal wedge procedures, frequently performed after wisdom teeth are extracted, because the

bone fill is usually poor, leaving a periodontal defect. Only if sufficient space exists distal to the last molar, a band of attached gingiva may be present. In such a case, a distal wedge operation can be performed. (DD).

14 yo has a good oral hygiene, lives in community fluoridated area. For prevention of future caries what should be instructed: better oral hygiene, placing sealants in all 4 1st molars, fluoride gel placement by pt daily, fluoride rinse daily after brushing.

Also she has a little brown discoloration in her mand 1st molar occlusal pit and fissure, with an explorer catching on it, you should: place sealant over, preventive resin resto, amalgam, no treatment at this

Biological width: junctional epi and connective tissue attachment within sulcus,

junctional and connective tissue attachment

Side effects of nitroglycerin: (know more, can be an except Q) – hypotension w/ reflex tachycardia, syncope, headache, flushed skin, dizziness, paradoxical bradycardia (google books) – MOSBY: Headache, syncope, tachycardia, tolerance,

Side effect of nitroglycerine nausea, headache b. lightheadness, respiratory depression

Most common post-extraction complication is (did not mention any jaw): dry socket, infection, hemorrhage, fracture

Least reoccurrence after removal: ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

Only microscopy can determine the diagnosis: ameloblastic fibroma, fibro- odontoma, KOT, radicular cyst – ODONTOGENIC KERATOCYST – follicular & dentigerous cysts that contain keratinizing material, and differs from other odontogenic cysts due to their microscopic appearance & clinical

Pt with chipped veneer but would like to keep it, for fixing chipped part with composite you do: micro-etch, etch, silane, bonding


Most common location of intraoral melanoma: palate and gingiva, palate and lip…

In osteoporosis you expect to see: brown tumors, thin trabecular, decreased calcification of cortical bone

What is not an advantage of LED cure in comparison to halogen: lifetime bulb, energy efficient, weight, curing depth

First sign of HIV: asymptomatic, hairy tongue, opportunistic manifestations

What change in white blood cells you see in cellulitis: neutropenia, neutrophilia,


Type of external resorption in pulpal necrosis: inflammatory, replacement

Nitrous oxide is contraindicated in asthma pts. T/F NO can be used in anxious


Which is safe in all trimesters of pregnancy: ibuprofen, aspirin, some opioid,

acetaminophen+codeine (Tylenol 3)

How to differentiate incipient white caries on smooth surface with remineralized caries: transillumination, enamel illumination, with using explorer on surface, with better lighting and air drying

Studies showed the the effect of leukotriens in: asthma, stomach ulcers

Implant analog is what for: to take an impression with it, to pour impression with it

All influence duration of anesthesia, Except one: (I think ASDA q)

Which muscle to take considerations in shaping the lingual border of denture:

mylohyoid, genioglossus, geniohyoid

If posterior palatal seal is too deep it causes: unseating of denture, gagging

Soccer player wakes up with sore temporal muscle and stiffness of the jaw:

myofacial syndrome, osteoarthritis

Helix built in uprighting molar serves for: increase force, increase range, increase body translation – in dd ortho card 14 mention helices are incorporated to increase the action range and flexibility , so its b

Posture has an influence on: (different intraoral findings in options) – If I remember it correctly , the options were vdo, vertical dimension at rest…

Veneer with discolored margin after 3 weeks, reason: amines, insufficient resin 839. FDA is conducting a clinical trial about a new drug on animals and human. What

is the phase 3 of this study?

to see if the drug is cancerous on animal or not

b. to find the effective dose of the drug

to find the MOA of drug

…..–> there was another option which I think it was the correct answer but I don’t remember it

phase 1 – Safety and dosage

phase 2 – Evaluate/find effectiveness

phase 3 – to CONFIRM the effectiveness, to find common side effects phase 4 – to find the RARE side effects

Which one in wax try in for complete denture? Facebow record b. Esthetic

Early primary teeth lost papillon-lefevre syndrome – T (autosomal recessive, deficiency in cathepsin C, primary teeth lost by 4 years old, permanent teeth lost by 14 years old).

Most common in mandibule premolar region a. CCOT OKC c. OM d. fibrous dysplasia e. lateral periodontal cyst


Submandibular space drainage through which muscle platysma b. masseter c. median pterygoid

When draining purulent exudate from an abscess of the pterygomandibular space using an intraoral approach, the buccinator muscle is most likely to be

– DD

Which oral pigmented lesion resolve spontaneously? a. varix b. freckle melanotic macule

Which is correct about conjugation? a. adding a molecule to the drug b. making the drug more lipid soluble c. increase in the effect of drug

Which of these cognitive behavior decrease in a normal process of aging: learning b. attention c. reaction

Which one does NOT show the dispersing of date a. variance median c. standard error

DMF shows? caries b.oral hygiene

Dmf index = measures how permanent dentition is affect by caries

Fail-safe mechanism part of NO machine does not let the increase of NO flew by what percent 20 b.50 c.70 d.90

Pappoos board isn’t used in which situation: Treatment of a 14 years old cooperative patient

Where do progenitor cells for new attachment come from? a) alveolar ridge b) PDL c) cementum d) connective tissue of gingiva

What does bimaxillary protrusion mean? A protrusive dentoalveolar position of maxillary and mandibular arches that produces a convex facial

Pt doesn’t have upper 3rd molars. How many furcations do we have in upper jaw? 12 b. 14 c. 8 is the ans now if 6 is in there is 6?? The answer should be 16! first maxillary premolars are BIFURCATED! Maxillary molars are TRIFURCATED! That means we have (4 maxillary molars * 3 furcations) + (2 first maxillary premolars * 2 furcations)


Retentive clasp fracture? Work hardening b. Crystal formation in clasp c. Low modulus of elasticity d. High elongation

Mild wear facet in primary dentition? No treatment needed b. It is bcs of parafunction

Which one has least effect on DURATION of local anesthesia a. Systemic absorption of drug Bind to protein in tissue (Absorption = bioavailability, Duration = protein binding)

Missing more than two teeth but not all them – Oligodontia

What impression material has a natural affinity to water? a) Polyether

b) Additional silicon c) Condensing silicon d) Poly sulfide

What do you see in pathology of osteoporosis – Thin trabecula

Not a symptom for dentin dysplasia (enamel loss) Most common supernumerary tooth – Mesiodens 864. Most common variable tooth is – Max Lat

Most common tooth affected by dens in dente – Max lateral

Most common type of tooth loss in bulimic pt – erosion, lingual aspect

Another question about tooth loss was unclear it was about tooth loss due to tooth influx – Abfraction

Patient who has medical history but is not debilitating but will require medical management and dental modifications – 1-ASA 3 2- ASA2


Failure in morphodifferentiation results in . a.size and shape abnormality ,b. peg lateral ,c. macrodontia All is the ans

Bald tongue and dysphagia is in a risk of developing which cancer – Plummer vinson syndrome expressing as SCC (Oral Symptoms: angular stomatitis, smooth, red, painful tongue with atrophy of the papillae).

Problem in CL channel which disease – Cystic fibrosis

Crowe’s sign – Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease of skin) à autosomal dominant disease, due to a mutation of the tumor suppressor gene NF1, six or more café-au-lait macules greater than 1.5 cm – these are usually smooth- surfaced (“Coast of California”), two or more neurofibromas OR one plexiform neurofibroma (pathognomonic for the condition), axillary freckling (called Crowe’s sign), iris hamartomas (called Lish nodules).

Uniform widen in pdl and bilateral resorb of angel what is the disease: No scleroderma in options but “SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS” (its is also known as SCLERODERMA)

Pt has PDL space widening with radiolucency at the angle of the mandible

(a) multiple sclerosis (b) osteosarcoma (c) fibrous dysplasia (d) other options – Now you know the missing option.

Oral sign with achondroplasia – Normal tooth, crowding and class 3 – DD à The teeth are of normal size but there is limited space within the maxillary and mandibular arches for them to erupt into, which causes overcrowding and subsequent malocclusion.

Dental problem with decreased Alk pho – Hypophosphatasia = Enlarged pulp and incomplete roots. DD à CHILDHOOD: THE MOST COMMON FEAUTRE IS PREMATURE LOSS OF PRIMARY TEETH WITHOUT INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE. The premature loss of

teeth in children and adults is usually characteristic. Radiographically, the teeth display enlarged pulp chambers and pulp canals, deficient root development as well as alveolar bone loss. Patients w/ Paget disease have high levels of serum alkaline phosphatase.

X linked associated with thin hair and hypodontia – Ectodermal dysplasia

What does the hyperbaric chamber help with I put angiogenesis

Time for surgical hand washing is 3 min

Which drug gives tardive dyskansia is phenothiazines – Tardive dyskinesia-a serious, irreversible neurological disorder that can appear at any age. It is a side effect of antipsychotic/neuroleptic drugs (i.e. phenothiazine).

What condition of the tongue involves the foliate papilla is – lingual tonsil hyperplasia

Supernumerary teeth with cranial bossing which syndrome – Cleidocranial dysplasia – CD: the most distinctive features include delayed tooth eruption and supernumerary teeth, hypoplastic or aplastic clavicles, cranial bossing, and hypertelorism. (Mosby)

Warm bone sign of which disease – Paget (Paget’s bone is also hypervascular and may feel warm to )

Early shedding of primary teeth and delay of perm teeth – Cherubism

Dry and rough hair and enlarge tongue and max over grow associated with –


Bells palsy which nerve – Facial (VII)

Delay healing associated with all except (Cushing /Addison/-DM/vit c increase) 888. IgM heterohybridomas diagnosis for – Infectious mononucleosis by EBV


Punch out appearance and M spike – Multiple myeloma

890. Medicines in MM – Cyclophosphamide (alkylating agent, immunosuppressant) is used in DD, bisphosphonates

Wide pdl and paresthesia and tooth loss with – Osteosarcoma

Sharp pain in throat increase with chewing (Unilateral pain in throat worsen by chewing) – Glossopharyngeal neuralgia

Meds not given to pt on anti cholinergic tx – opioids

Most common non odonto cyst is – Nasopalatine Duct Cyst (Incisive Canal Cyst)– a “heart-shaped” radiolucency in the midline of the hard palate. It is the most common non-odontogenic/developmental fissural

Pear shape cyst is – Globulomaxillary – Globulomaxillary Cyst-an inverted “pear- shaped” radiolucency in bone between the roots of the maxillary lateral & canine (often causes the roots of the involved teeth to diverge). – Tear shape its lateral periodontal

Calcified flax cerbi with which syndrome – Nevoid basal cell syndr / Gorlin syndr

Most common cyst – Radicular

Only way to differentiate bw granuloma and radicular cyst – Histology

Tennis racket and honeycomb appearance which cancer – Odontogenic myxoma

Periapical cemental dysp more in – middle age black women/mandible anterior

Complex odontoma more in – posterior mandible

Most common burn in mouth due to – aspirin

Geographic necrosis with kidney problem what is the diagnosis – Wegener’s granulomatosis (Oral lesions present as strawberry )

Most common gland affected by salivary gland tumor is –parotid

Question about necrotizing silometaplasia – NECROTIZING SIALOMETAPLASIA: deep-seated palatal ulcer with clinical and histologic features mimicking those of a malignant neoplasm. Recognized lesion of the minor salivary glands, characterized by necrosis of the glandular parenchyma w/ associated squamous metaplasia and hyperplasia of the ductal epithelium. The initiating event of necrotizing sialometaplasia is believed to be related to ischemia, secondary to alteration of local blood Both, clinically and histologically, the lesion may simulate a malignancy

and, in the past, the condition has been misdiagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. FOLLOWING BIOPSY AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE DIAGNOSIS, FURTHER TREATMENT GENERALLY IS NOT RECOMMENDED SINCE HEALING USUALLY OCCURS WITHING 6-10 WEEKS.

Porcelain has tooth matching color by – glaze firing

Dentist choice by metamerism – Different colors under different light sources

Lab adds stains in the inside of the porcelain – to decrease value

909. Lab glazes and polishes the porcelain in the end of the design – More compatible to the gingiva; In dd card 135, said the glaze firing is the last firing and it produce smooth and translucent surface. During glazing: Surface layers of porcelain melt slightly, coalescing the particles and filling in surface defects (Mosby page 361)

Meds not given to one on BDZ – antifungal agents

Meds contraindicated in pt on barbiturates – phenothiazines, alcohol, antihypertensive agents, and antihistamines (Kaplan)

Chlorothiazide – electrolyte test because it causes hypokalemia


Except sweat changes, pt will also show what changes in cystic fibrosis: lung, saliva, urine and some other options – CF results in several symptoms (the most important symptom affects the digestive tract and lungs).

Medicines contraindicated in a cystic fibrosis pt – beta 2 antagonists, NO2

(General anesthesia is avoided too in DD, they will have COPD, like chronic bronchitis

, sinusitis , so beta 2 agonist will help)

915. COPD pt, what is contraindicated – 100% o2 therapy, nitrous oxide, If patient with copd is taking theophylline should not prescribed erythromycin, it will lead to toxicity, card 75 surgery, General anesthesia is contraindicated and avoid certain antibiotic barbiturate, narcotic, antihistamin and anticolinergic. (USC pt management manual book).

Max amount of N2O that can you flow into the tube at a time – 70% adult / 50% kids

Tetraycline works by: no 30s or protein synthesis in option, but there was options of

interference with collagenase, 50s unit, plasma proteins and dna gyrase

Pt on your chair, presents with insulin shock, what will you do next? Orange juice, glucose, epinephrine, O2, etc – The treatment of choice for hypoglycemia in an unconscious diabetic patient: EMS should be contacted. Then 1mg of glucagon can be injected IM, or 50 ml of 50% glucose (dextrose) solution can be given by rapid IV If conscious, oral glucose (orange juice). – DD

Pt on hep B meds, what will you do? Call physician, order regular CBC etc. blood reports, were some fancy names of tests

Mandi tori removal, most frequent complication? Options were loss of cortical border bone, injury to mental n, lingual n, or IAN injury

During maxillary tori removal, you accidentally perforate a part of the palate with the tori, what structure will you see? Nasal cavity, inferior concha, pharynx and one more irrelevant option

During 3M removal, which mand part is most likely to get fractured? Lingual plate

Closed mandi fracture, which is most likely to interfere with the closed reduction? Pull of muscle, 3 different combinations of muscles in 3 options, one option was improper access

Intermaxillary fixation indicated in all the following except? Know all the situations when it is needed: Typical indications for its use are minimally displaced fractures, deep bite cases, stabilization of fracture during open reduction and internal fixation, orthognathic surgeries and in tumor resection surgeries


Intermaxillary fixation is released earlieast in which of the following? Options with different mandibular feacture sites – The IMF wires are usually removed in 3 weeks and jaw exercises encouraged. Immobilization beyond 3 weeks in condylar fractures can


result in ankylosis of temporomandibular joints. The intermaxillary wires may be reapplied for another week if occlusion is not good. Also, a simple, nondisplaced, greenstick (incomplete fracture) mandibular fracture in a healthy child would certainly require less intermaxillar fixation time than multiple, grossly comminuted, compound mandibular fractures in an older unhealthy patient.

Best radiograph to view zygoma? No submentovertex option, waters, PA, CT, MRI Pt with a nodule on the middle of the neck, what is most likely dx? Thyroglossal

duct cyst probably, don’t rmbr other options

Bluish lesion on lateral surface of tongue for 5yr painless what is it varicosities or

hemangioma –

Warty lesion—papilloma

Maxillary incisor 4 teeth rpd, what should we achieve? — Mac anterior teeth contacting on protrusion only, at CR, balanced occlusion, canine guided occlusion

Benzoyl peroxide decomposition by tertiary amine in chemically activated resin –


Abx in cellulitis with draining fistula yes or no 933. Antibiotic for sinusitis – Augmentin

Complication of temporal artritis – Blindness

Where do we use 10% chx varnish? P&f caries prevention, white smooth surface caries prevention, secondary caries prevention

Parkinson’s disease, except — is progressive, always require medication,

associated with intentional tremor, associated with dementia 937. Amount of epithelial regeneration everyday is 0.5-1 mm – T 938. Chronic periodontitis, class 2 diabetes mellitus– black males

Gtr best for: horizontal augmentation, class 2 furcation, one wall defect, class 3 furcation

Gtr– involves coronal movement of pdl – T

Reattachment concept – Reunion of tissue to the rooth

Radiographic appearance of pericornitis – flame shape

943. Ameloblastoma, Benign, Localy aggressive, Reverse polarization, Rl post mn, Extreme facial deformity, teeth vital, painless, honey comb or soap bubble appearance

Basal cell carcinoma Most common skin cancer – Upper lip or lateral nose, Best prognosis, Sun exp area

Value negative calculation – Positive predictive value is the probability that subjects with a positive screening test truly have the disease. Negative predictive value is the probability that subjects with a negative screening test truly don’t have the

Predict value positive: TP/(TP+FN)*100 Predict value negative: TN/(TN+FP)*100

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of hepatitis? A. Valproic acid Quinidine C. Isoniazid D. Ethosuximide

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of Stevens-Johnson syndrome? A. Valproic acid B. Quinidine C. Isoniazid D. Ethosuximide

Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of Tendon dyfunction? Digitalis B. Niacin C. Tetracycline D. Fluoroquinolones


Which of the following is considered a class IA Sodium Channel blocker? A. Propafenone B. Disopyramide C. Aminodarone Quinidine (Supraventricular tachyarrhythmias)

When part of body is thick which of the following applies? X rays penetrate more and the object appears more radiopaque b. X rays penetrate more and the object appears more radioluscent c. Change of developing cancer in that body part is less d. Chance of cancerous change is more – (if “penetrate” hear means “absorption”, because if the substance is thicker, it will absorb more photons and the resultant imaging will be white.

Rate of implant success after 10 years? 90 b. 95 c. 80 d. 85

Which results in necrotic pulp Inflammatory resorption b. Replacement resorption c. External resorption

Over the counter bleaching is with 25 % carbamide peroxide and the most common side effect is tooth sensitivity

Both statements are true

First statement is true, second is false

c. First statement is false, second is true

Both statements are false

While performing a tooth preparation, removal of one of the cusps and replacement with restorative material corresponds to the idea of: Resistance form

Retention form c. Outline form d. Convenience form

A patient who had a deep MOD composite placed in one of the lower molars complains about pain and sensitivity, dentist replaces the occlusal of the restoration with a new composite and pain is gone what is an explanation of why the pain occurred? Voids in the previous restoration b. Leakage c. Fracture of the tooth –

The reason for post operative sensitivity is polymerization shrinkage causing gaps,

which could result in rapid movement of dentinal fluid and this sensitivity. – BB

Recurrent caries incidence for a class II composite is highest where? Gingival floor

DO composite does NOT contain which of the following? A. Axiopulpal line angle

Axio gingival line angle c. Mesiofacial line angle d. Axio distal line angle

Which one of the following has the highest difference of coefficient of thermal expansion with the actual tooth? 1- ceramics 2- porcelain 3-polymers 4-polemr associated with – Wax (250-400)

When there is minimum attached gingival, what happens? 1- most likely you get gingival recession

When you have a horizontal rot fracture how do u take and x-ray? 1-one xray from angulated vertical angle

2-one x-ray from horizontal angulated angle

3-3-multiple x-rays from different horizontal angles

4-multiple x-rays from different vertical angle (One at 0 degrees, then one at + and – 15 degrees – Mosby)

When do u remove alveolar proper? 1-ostectomy 2- osteotomy 3-alevoplasty etc 962. A pedunculated white lesion on the palate that is rough, what is it? 1- fibrome 2-

papiloma 3-pleomorphic adenoma

Porcelain has tooth matching color by? Dentist choice by metamerism b. Lab adds stains in the inside of the porcelain c. Lab glazes and polishes the porcelain in the end of the design


All of these could be considered as differential diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst except? osteomas, fibrous dysplasia, central giant cell granuloma, hemangioma

For routine tooth extraction ,all is true except? 2 major forces are luxation and rotation

teeth are extracted by luxation forces

teeth are extracted by rotation forces (Rotation only for single rooted teeth. Not all)

class 2 lever is used in tooth extraction

Compared to a full thickness flap, a partial thickness(split-thickness) flap will

increase the loss of marginal

reduce infraosseous

provide improved surgical

increase the amount of attached

E. reduce healing time

Which of the following is not an action of epinephrine when given in high doses? increases liver glycogenolysis

causes bronchoconstriction

produces rise in bp

evokes extrasystoles in the heart produces restlessness and anxiety

What will you see in a diabetic patient? general gingival recession, gingival abcess, necrotizing gingiva, periodontal abcess

At high concentration of fluoride in drinking water (4ppm) the caries incidence:

a) remains the same b) decrease c) increases

Moderately developmentally disabled 5-year-old child is crying excessively and resisting physically during an emergency dental visit. Which of the following methods of patient management should the dentist use in this situation? Voice control, Home, Physical restrain – Master app

What will prohibit mesial drift of tooth toward edentulous area? Proper axio- occlusal contact (opposing and adjacent tooth) – T

Proximal resistance form of amalgam restoration comes from what? a. convergence of buccal / lingual wall b. retention grooves in axiobuccal / axiolingual walls Dovetail – DD: dovetail provides resistance to proximal displacement.

Oral granulomas, apthous ulcer, rectal bleeding is seen in. Wegeners granulomatosis, ulcerative colitis, crohns disease

Which treatment has the least successful long term prognosis on a deep carious lesion on #3? 1. Direct pulp capping, 2. Indirect pulp capping, 3. Pulpotomy, 4. Pulpectomy and RCT – Direct pulp capping is for noncarious exposure only. (Mosby)

What would be the most reasonable cause for a tooth’s symptoms to change from reversible to irreversible pulpitis? a) Accumulation of traumatic injuries b) Bacterial involvement inside pulp chamber c) Increased intra-pulpal pressure

Excess interocclusal space causes: a) decrease VDO b) increase VDO c) same VDO

Biotransformation of drug causes – lipid soluble, protein binding, therapeutic active – makes it water soluble (less lipid soluble, more ionized)

Fear causes – inc pain tolerance, intensify pain – Fear often increases the person’s perception of pain, and pain then increases feelings of fear and

Which part of curette tip is adapted to the toot (a) distal 3rd (b) middle 3rd (c) proximal 3rd end – Lower third (1/3)


Diagnose Chronic apical abscess vs Chronic periodontal abscess

(a) EPT (b) Radiograph (c) Thermal test – I think answer is “c” but EVERYBODY say “a”

Which drug is effective against Herpetic simplex, Herpes Zoster and Varicella Zoster

(a) Amantadine (b) Valiclovir (c) other IDK – According to Mosby PG 335 – Table 8-39: VALACYCLOVIR is effective against HSV and VZV- FOSCARNET is the only drug effective against HSV, VZV, and CMV.

Radiograph showing radiopacity in lower right mandibular area spreading from 2nd molar to 1st premolar

(a) Perifying ossifying fibroma (b) CGCG (c) Fibrous dysplasia (d) IDK

Fibrous dyplasia is radiopaque, not well circumscribed and ground glass appearance.

Pt avoiding dentist becoz of ugly ulcer on palate and also shows concern while sitting on chair, what do you say?

(a) Don’t worry I will look at it in detail (b) It seems you are concerned with that condition in your mouth (I picked this one as we don’t give false assurance to any pt)

A dentist conductes a study about satisfaction of patients treated in 1 month period of time which study is this? ( basically a cause effect relationship result)

(a) Case control (b) Cohort (c) Cross sectional (d) Clinical trial (my ans I just picked because it is interventional study I might be wrong)

Informed consent can have all of the following EXCEPT: A) Informed consent must be presented in advance of the treatment. B) Informed consent must contain treatment options. C) Informed consent must be in written form. D) Informed consent must contain risks and benefits of the treatment…..

One ques was on paraphrasing: they gave 4 totally confusing statement…I was supposed to pick which was NOT paraphrasing pt ….

Patient complains, “Why do I have to stay here for so long for you to do this, why can’t you finish it already?” A) Because that’s how treatment works you B) That’s how long it takes to provide quality care. C) It seems like you’re upset, may be we can reschedule you for another day for longer appointment. D) It seems you are upset, what are your concerns about the procedure we’re doing today?

Question about what do you need for caries: Bacteria, supporting carbs and a susceptible tooth

Primary tooth requires additional reduction on which surface

(a) Mesial and distal (b) lingual (c) buccal (d) other option

DD à In the case of first primary molars, the buccal bulges often are very prominent. It is sometimes necessary to remove them to get the preformed crown to fit over the buccal prominence.

Incisal guide table is for (a) for anterior teeth arrangement (b) condylar guidance 991. PID ques about changing from 8 to 16 inch all other parameter remain only

change in exposure time from 0.5 to which one (0.5*4=2)

In X-ray tube , Electrons are produced by ? A- molybdenum cup

B- leaded glass

C- tungsten filament

D- copper filament

X-rays are produced when (1)protons strike the anode. (2)electrons strike the


(3)the anode is heated above 3,000 degrees C.

x ray effect is called: thompson effect or photoelectric effect

Epinephrin given along with erectile dysfunction medication what effect is produced: epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor!! so epinephrine will reduce the effect of the drug

Removal of subgingival calculus is termed as

(a) scaling- (b) root planing – removal of infected cementum (c) curettage – removal of infected pocket lining

Ques asking which procedure is most conservative when width of caries is more than 1/3 of intercuspal space a) amalgum b) inlay c) onlay d) cronw

Epi reversal is due to – alpha 1 blocker

Force put on crown, where is center of translation or rotation? Halfway down root

(axis of rotation located in the apical 1/3 of the root – tipping)

1000. Best to debride infected oral wound? 3% hydrogen peroxide
1001. Pt with Alzheimer dz, what do you do? Continue to monitor
1002. Lidocaine – mepivacaine (Cross allergy, both are amide)
1003. Cocaine produces vomiting by – activating CTZ in brain
1004. Actinic cheilitis occurs with – SCC
1005. Amnesia related ques of which ans was Alprazolam – T – anterograde Amnesia
1006. Sertraline (Zoloft) adverse effect or something – frankly speaking I forgot what it
was in my test I randomly picket xerostomia hope it is right – Yes zoloft or sertraline… cause xerostomia

Zoloft what does it act on? Serotonin – it’s an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)

Complement activated by – a) T cells b) B cells c) lymphokines d) immunecomplex

What do we write the consult for: A) To gain certain information B) To gain clearance C) To have a better relationship with patient’s physician, of course.

Wheel chair transfer ques with option – sliding method still is best technique to transfer pt

Disabled kid, best measure: Consistency

Articular disk has 25 mm opening with click then on closure there is again a click, when is there is another click what is it due to – disk rest on condyle on opening and moves forward on closure (indirectly disk displacement with reduction)

Best Amalgam: High copper spherical amalgam

Mandibular 3rd molar root lost: submandibular space

Which of the following is clinical sign of Leukemia: Bleeding from gums, pale conjunctiva, fever

1016. Acromegaly causes: Excessive growth of mandible

Radiograph of zygomatic arch – CT scan, NO submentovertex in options

Patient does not have tooth #11 and has all the premolars, which one has the Worst Prognosis: A) fixed bridge from #10-12. B) RPD with pontic for #11 – C) Implants with canine guidance

Pt with medullary carcinoma of thyroid


MEN (Pheochromocytoma and MEN cause thyroid cancer)

interstinal polyps

Kid-8 year old- 3mm crowding. TX


a-primary canine extract b-primary canine disking c-molar extract

molar disking

blood flow test in pulp? ts Doppler ( for blood flow) or like this thing , was before rq with options

IRM added in 1990, what was that? a-ZnPo4

b-titanium c-silver


Discolouration with ant tooth, endo treated portion of carious teeth, need to be restore? TX

a-porcelin veneer

b-FCC – Full Ceramic Crown

c-metal crown d-composite

1024. After injection-pt feels tachycardia, weak, wheezing, lethargy. Reason?

Anaphylaxis, hyperglycemia, anxiety attach

Edge to Edge ant bite seen in photograph what is not recommended?

PFM Crown

b. All ceramic crown

Patient has lithium overdoes its effects is greater on ? KIDNEY and TYROID. Nausea, diarrhea, convulsion, coma, cardiac arrhythmias, polydipsia, polyuria, inhibits the effect of antiodiuretic hormone on the kidney. TYROID ENLARGEMENT: increases stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion; may cause hypothyroidism.

Most type of bacteria in ANUG ? A. Provetella b. Spirochete

What type of fracture associated with exposed impacted tooth? A. Comminuted.

Compound c. Simple – Compound. Bone would be exposed through the mucosa near teeth.

Least likely virus to be found in the oral cavity infections – HIV

Which lesion resolves by itself? Hematoma and hamartoma both in option, others were obvious tx needed.

Bone marrow depression by what drug? – Chloromphenicol

Tx of osteromyelitis? Was surgical options, no meds – Sequestrectomy, saucerization, curettage

Tooth prep ques on anterior teeth, reduction on middle and incisal third for PFM:

gingival 0.3, middle 0.5, incisal 0.7

1034. Finishing line in PFM (CHAMFER 1.0mm – LABIAL SHOULDER 1.5mm) and veneer (CHAMFER) – Butt joint (SHOULDER) for porcelain jacket crowns

Pt came in for a 3 month recall, initial therapy doesn’t show any changes, pocket depths not exceeding 3-4 mm, what tx step will u do? srp and wait for 3 more months, surgery only if pockets greater than 4 mm

Pt comes in for a 6 month maintenance appt, little improvement in pdl status and plaque control is efficient, though u can see infra gingival calculus, what was the reason? You didn’t do SRP properly, pt has no goof access to the deep pockets, pt only concerns about looks, etc


Angry child, shows this behavior on the second but was cooperative on the first appt, what is the best method to control this behavior? N2O tx, GA, papoose board, voice control

1038. Validity – is the extent to which it actually tests what it claims to test. The validity of a test is determined by its ability to show which individuals have the disease in question and which do not.

Sensitivity – percent of persons with the disease

Specificity – percent of persons without the disease

1041. Reliability – equal to the repeatability and reproductibility of a test (level of agreement between repeated measurements of the same variable).

Macroglossia is not seen in which of the following conditions, chose


Pt with mid face ill developed, no ear pinna, which syndrome? Eagle’s, tracher Collin’s, apert, crouzon – Malformed ear= Trache Collin’s

1044. Cause of angular chelitis: immune, speech therapy, poor home care

Predisposing Factors: intra–oral Candida albicans infection, loss of inter–maxillary distance (decreased vertical dimension), trauma to the labial commissure induced by prolonged dental treatment. Also linked to Candida albicans. Treatment: NYSTATIN will eliminate the fungal infection. – BB

Ethical principles and legal rules? Both are same, totally different, ethics exceed legal rules, rules exceed ethics.

AED – automated external defibrillator (AED) is not used in? children, old patients, etc – ts not given to trauma pts, kids under 1 year old and ppl with high pulse

A defibrillator must not be used on an individual who is conscious or has a pulse even if it is erratic but not life-threatening. 1. Responsive 2. Unresponsive WITH pulse 3. People under 55 LBS 4. People who are soaking wet (dry off chest)

Aspirin patch is histologically? Necrosis, hyperkeratosis, etc

Folic acid inhibited in? methotrexate, fluorouracil – people say both, BUT! – Methotrexate is a Folic Acid Analog and 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) is a Pyrimidine Analog.

Bisphosphanates are not given in? metastasis of breast ca to bone, metastasis of prostate to bone, osteomyelitis, multiple myeloma

1050. Which is the most common oral site for metastatic cancer? Posterior mandible
1051. Which is the most common site for primary oral cancer? Tongue
1052. Worst prognosis? Floor of tongue
1053. Best prognosis? Lower lip
1054. Supra basilar split and pemphigus
1055. Bone Grafting, which one shows worst prognosis? Max ant, mand ant, max post,
mand post

Trephination – Apical trephination is accomplished by aggressively placing a No. 15 to 25 k-file beyond the confines of the apex. Surgical trephination is a perforation of the alveolar cortical bone to release accumulated tissue exudates. A small (5-mm) horizontal incision is made with a No. 15 scapel blade at the level slightly apical to the root apex. A No. 6 or 8 round bur is used on a straight handpiece to penetrate the cortical plate above the root apex. If there is diffuse swelling (cellulitis), antibiotics are usually indicated. – DD

A. Incision and drainage and trephination.

1. Objectives are to evacuate exudates and purulence and toxic irritants. Removal speeds healing and reduces discomfort from irritants and The best treatment


for swelling from acute apical abscess is to establish drainage and to clean and shape the canal.

Indications for trephination of hard tissues:

If a pathway is needed from hard tissue to obtain necessary

When pain is caused by accumulation of exudate within the alveolar

To obtain samples for bacteriologic analysis. Procedure.

a. Incision and drainage is a surgical opening created in soft tissue for the purpose of releasing exudates or decompressing an area of swelling. Trephination refers to surgical perforation of the alveolar cortical bone to release accumulated tissue exudates. Profound anesthesia is difficult to achieve in the presence of infection because of the acidic pH of the abscess and hyperalgesia. The incision should be made firmly through periosteum to bone. Vertical incisions are parallel with major blood vessels and nerves and leave very little scarring. These procedures may include the placement and subsequent timely removal of a drain. Antibiotics may be indicated in patients with diffuse swelling (cellulitis), patients with systemic symptoms, or patients who are

Purpose of Hex in implants – antirotation 1058. Most common type of caries seen in kids 1059. Non working side interference

Beclomethasone uses – Beclomethasone, Budesonide, & Flunisolide: special glucocorticoids (INHALERS) developed to treat chronic asthma and bronchial disease by readily penetrating the airway mucosa, but have very short half-lives after they enter the blood so systemic effects and toxicity are greatly reduced. – is inhalational steriod used as inhaler in asthma prevention.

What is advantage of Beclomethasone – corticoid (topical and inhaler)

Combination of tricyclic antidepressants (there was diferent combination but the correct was) A) imipramine + amitriptyline

1063. Doxycyline read its uses – Doxycycline (Vibramycin)- treats syphilis, rickettsia infections, Chlamydia, & mycoplasma infections, and is an alternative to mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis. – Prevents further breakdown of periodontal tissues by blocking collagenase.

Picture – Hyoid bone (both sides) 1065. Pano- inferior border of mandible 1066. Cocaine – vasoconstrictor

1067. Opioid side effects – Common Side Effects: sedation and drowsiness (by depressing the conscious centers of the brain), dizziness, & nausea. The MOST common side effect of the narcotic (opiate) analgesics is NAUSEA. Narcotic analgesics DO NOT cause peptic ulcers or insomnia.

Fracture at root apex: splinting for how many days? 7-10 days, 2-3 weeks, 4-6 weeks – Horizontal fracture – rigid splinting for 3 – 4 months

Avulsed tooth – flexible splint for 7-10 days (1-2 weeks)

How long after extraction can you insert the complete denture???? 4 weeks, 1 week, 6 weeks, 8 weeks (8-16 WEEKS)

Pt takes too much opioid, what do you see? A. insomnia b. irritability c. headache

pt feels cold – because of hypothermia / hypothension


Mepivacaine indication – mepivacaine has less of a vasodilator effect compared with the others and is the drug usually chosen when a vasoconstrictor is not used with the local anesthetic.

Question on upcoding – reporting a more complex and/or higher cost procedure than was actually performed.

1074. Down coding: a practice of third party payers in which the benefit code has been changed to a less complex and /or lower cost procedure than was reported where delineated in contract

Bundling: systematic combining of distinct dental procedures by a third party payer that result in reduced benefit for the patient/beneficiares.

Unbundling: separating of dental procedure into component parts with each part having a charge so that the cumulative charge of the component is greater than the total charge to patients who are not beneficiaries of a dental plan for the same procedure.

Bacteria seen in chronic periodontitis – P. gingivalis (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intemedia, C. rectus)

Chronic periodontitis most common in – black males

Percussion used for- symptomatic apical periodontitis

1080. Ept indications – usually elicits a response at a HIGHER current than normal if the tooth being tested has CHRONIC PULPITIS. Acute pulpitis – indicated by a lower than normal current, as acute inflammation mediators lower the pain threshold. Chronic pulpitis – indicated by a response at a HIGHER current than normal. Hyperemia – indicated by a LOWER than normal current, but a higher current than with an acute pulpitis. Pulp necrosis/Abscess – indicated by no response at any current – BB

Benzoyl peroxide initiator- self cure

Caoh indications – Calcium hydroxide may be used to induce apical hard tissue formation. Use calcium hydroxide for reparative dentin. Typical liner used with direct restorations. – Mosby

Q on galvanic shock patient had electric pain after restoration 1084. Q on reversible pulpitis irreversible pulpitis

Recession – apical positioning flap? I thinks it is contraindicated – Free Gingival Graft Indications: Prevent further recession and successfully widen (increase the width) of attached gingiva, used therapeutically to widen attached gingiva after recession occurs and prophylactically (to prevent), corrects localized narrow recessions or clefts, but NOT DEEP WIDE RECESSIONS. Pedicle Flap (Laterally Positioned Flap) – areas where narrow gingival recession. Used to correct or prevent recession by providing root coverage, creating a wider band of gingiva, and in the absence of recession to widen the zone of gingiva. Coronally Positioned Flap – a full -thickness mucoperiosteal flap almost exclusively used to restore gingival height and the zone of attached gingiva over isolated areas of gingival recession.

Most prevelant – type two diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Interaction between nitroglycerin and epinephrine is what type of antagonism?

Allosteric, Physiologic, Biochemical, Competitive 1088. Color stability in light cure – Tegdma

Composite class 2 restoration maintained by – extent till caries, retention n resistance form, rest i forgot options

Rubber dam leakage – holes placed too close


Rest thickness at margin – 0.5/1.5 or 1mm? – Occlusal rest 1.5 mm (Mosby)

Treatment of nug what antibiotics n mouthwashes. – The treatment of NUG or NUP includes debridement, hydrogen peroxide (or chlorhexidine) rinses, and antibiotic therapy (Pen. V) if there is systemic involvement (manifested by fever, malaise, and lymphadenopathy). Patients with HIV-asssociated NUG require gentle debridement and antimicrobial rinses. (DD)

What distunguish myocardial infarction from angina – thrombosis

Indirect sympathomimetic drug? Diphenyl – Amphetamine is the ans

Occlusal adjustments after composite restoration or amalgam: green stone, diamond bur, steel bur or carbide bur? – Remaining excess composite = finishing diamond burs, discs, strips, and the margins finely polished. Aluminum oxide disks provide the most desirable finished surface for a composite resin. – BB / Green stone is used to remove a relatively large bulk of amalgam.

Sodium hypochlorite doesn’t – chelates

Sodium hypo – dissolves necrotic tissues

If a patient is taking chantix what else need to be included in his smoking quitting regimen 1)use nicotin patches 2)zyban 3)behavioural counsellingis the ans

Community fluoride: 0.2% / week in underprivileged areas . true is the ans 1100. Case q’s about side effect of drug that cause altered taste sensation?

Cyclobenzaprine ans , calcium carbonate

Loosening and premature loss of deciduous teeth seen in early stage of – hyperphosphatasia – hypophosphatasia IS THE ANS – psuodophosphatasia

vit d resistant rickets – vit d deficient rickets

Patient complains of pain due to oral mucositis after radiotherapy, the pain is best treated with:

Nystatin b. Benzyl hydrochloride IS THE ANS c. Topical conticosteroid d. Morphine

Large filler particles in composite increase the strength of hardness? False – Small size filler particles in composite resins results in better finishing and greater resistance to occlusal wear. – BB

Large filler particles in composite increase polishibility & finishing? False

Smaller filler particles are used to produce a resin with a relatively smooth finished surface

– BB

Pt. wd radiation therapy effects- carcinogenisis? Osteoradionecrosis?

Oral mucous membrane: (1) Near the end of the second week of therapy, the mucous membrane begins to show areas of redness (mucositis), (desquamated epithelial layer, secondary yeast infection by C. albicans is a common complication and may require treatment.

Pt. has white spot on cervical area of tooth, what is the treatment- fluoride varnish or no treatment

Reverse smile – pt chin upward

In class V amalgam preparation for an incipient lesion, the ideal internal form of the preparation has which of the following features?

Axial wall is flat b. Mesial and distal walls converge c. Occlusal and gingival walls converge d. Axial wall is uniformly deep into dentin

Lithium – bipolar

In preparing a class I cavity for dental amalgam, the dentist will diverge the mesial and distal walls toward the occlusal surface. This divergence serve to

Prevent undermining of marginal ridges b. Provide convenience form


Resist the forces of mastication d. Extend the preparation into areas more readily cleansed.

Which bur is used to converge axial wall of the crown, ????/No. 173

1112. Elongation of which papillae – hairy tongue (HYPERTROPHY of the FILIFORM PAPILLAE)

Facebow – The facebow transfer is NOT a maxillo-mandibular record. Rather, it is a record used to orient the maxillary cast to the hinge axis on the articulator. The facebow transfers the maxilla/hinge axis relationship to the articulator during mounting of the maxillary cast.

TCA antagonist – Physostigmine – Physostigmine’s primary therapeutic role aims to

ameliorate delirium as a result of the anticholinergic (more accurately, antimuscarinic) toxidrome resultant from the blockade of muscarinic receptors by agents such as atropine, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), amongst other xenobiotics.

Class V glass ionomer prep should : not bevel at all – Not for Gic, bevel only for composite.

What kind of bur cuts more efficiently? Diamond

12 year girl had AML and bone marrow replacement most likely to find intraorally? Candidiasis – children w/ leukemia are very susceptible to candida fungal infections, thus, nystatin rinses are effective tx.

Which drugs cause cleft lip and palate = anticonvulsants , valium, vitamin deficiency or excess

Place a FPD and it has occlusal deflection, what it the immediate result? A.

fracture B. pain on biting C. sensitivity to cold. – The most common complaint after cementation of a fixed bridge is sensitivity to hot/cold and is an indication of a deflective occlusal contact. Inmediate correction of the occlusion must be made.

Which of the following has decreased ALP and early loss of teeth –


Retention maxillary complete denture = peripheral seal

Retention mandibular complete denture = denture stability in covering as much basal bone possible without impinging on muscle attachment

PT fractured many FPDs you made her, why? Bad metal frame work design – Repeated fracture of a porcelain fused to metal (PFM) is due primarily to an Inadequately Designed Framework.

Why is there a cross-linking agent to dimethacrylate? So you can layer acrylic without getting craze/fracture lines. STRENGTH-for proper adhesion between incremental curing.

When will Amelog. Imp. Have the most effect on the maxillary centrals? A. 1-6 months – calcification of maxillary centrals 3-4 months. (Laterals 10-12 months)

What type of drug is PROZAC? Prototype SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor)

Max strength of porcelain? CONDENSATION – Max condensation, less porosity = stronger porcelain!

Most caries in primary teeth seen where? distal to mandibular 1st

In young patients, stains are more prominent on which area of the teeth? cervical

Which of the following does a .02 taper indicate for a K-file?

(1) 0.02mm increase in diameter per 1mm of file length

2mm increase in diameter per 2mm of file length


2mm increase in diameter per 1mm of file length

Picture of traumatic granuloma (pyogenic granuloma) in buccal vestibule, what is the Tx? Excision, If pregnant, lesion may regress after birth – BB

1132. NSAIDs works on? Platelet reversibly – except aspirin
1133. What causes gingival hyperplasia? Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil
1134. Which thyroid drug adds iodine to thyroxine decreasing its level – prothiouracil.
1135. Which antiretroviral causes pancreatitis and peripheral neuralgia – Stavudine
1136. Forcepts – elevation, luxation, compression, reflection? – Luxation – Elevation and
reflection is periosteal, compression is fingers.


Intraoral lesion of TB seen as – tonsillitis and ulceration (ulcer in the mid-dorsum or tip of the tongue)

Hyperventilating : tachypnea and tachycardia

Most caries susceptible tooth – maxillary 1st molar – upper 1st molar are most commonly affected (Kaplan)

Must difficult to change – HUE, easiest – CHROMA

Which of the following should NOT be prescribed for a patient receiving warfarin?


B. Metronidazole.



In pediatric patients 1. asthma has a decreasing prevalence. 2. asthma is an acute inflammatory disorder. 3. asthma leads to increased caries. 4. asthmatic attacks can be triggered by anxiety

Positive Nikolsky: Pemphigus Vulgarys, Pemphigoid, Epydermolysis Bullosa

Radiologic damage is less with:

more oxygen

B. decreased are of exposure (or less oxygen)

Congestive heart failure: pedal edema, dyspnea and orthopnea

Least sedative drug: Chlorpheniramine, Fexofenadine (second generation)

A patient has a crown on tooth #30. On trying to close the jaw, the jaw deviates to the left. What is the reason? Interference on buccal inclines

Which of the following is the most important factor affecting pulpal response?


(2)Depth to which dentinal tubules are cut (remaining dentin thickness) – ASDA





K sparing drug: Amiloride, triamterene, Spironolactone



Na and Cl cotransport Dec resorption of Na and Cl

Hydrocholrothiazide – prototype

Loop diuretic

Na/K/2cl cotransport Inhibits resorption of Na and Cl Furosemide -prototype Bumetanide

Ethacrynic acid Torsemide

K sparing

Na channel block: spironolactone Eplerenone

– aldosterone antagonist: Amiloride Triamterene

Carbonic anhydrase:

Acetazolamide Weak diuretic

Used in altitude sickness Osmotic diuretics Mannitol

Glycerin Urea

Used in edema after neurosurgery or trauma to CNS

Virax in oral cavity? Virax (Acyclovir) used for Rx of Herpes infection


What procedures you cant do in AIDS patient? Antifungal prophylaxis


Opiods effects. The short-term effects of opiate use can include: Feelings of euphoria, pain relief, drowsiness, sedation. Long-Term Effects of Opiates: Nausea and vomiting, abdominal distention and bloating, constipation, liver damage (especially

prevalent in abuse of drugs that combine opiates with acetaminophen), brain damage due to hypoxia, resulting from respiratory depression, development of tolerance, dependence.

Papoose contraindication: Mentally compromised pt


Lot of prostho occlusal interference questions

Which study doesn’t show cause and effect: Cross sectional, and also examine two


variables at the same moment.

Drugs those blocks prostaglandins has increased effect on gastric mucosa?

No it decrease gastric mucosa and increase gastric acid (peptic ulcer). Aspirin and other cox inhibitors.

Patient with squeletal prognatic maxilla and lower class 3 molar What do u do per surgical ortho treatment? a.Labial movement of both upper and lower incisors b.Lingual movement of upper and lower incisors c.Labial movement for upper incisors and lingual for lower d.Lingual movement for upper incisors and labial for lower

We do pre surgical with brackets bring lower lingually, and for upper surgically we do lefort 1.

Combination syndrome

Chs of band and loop

Least fracture resitant ; lithium, feldpathic, zirconia

Pka ( ph when drug is 50% ionized and 50% non ionized ) has effect on what?




16 kg of 3 year old how many mgs LA to give? 16 x 4 : 70.4 mg


What meds you give in osteomyelitis? Clindamicin

Pt with bizarre behavior and disorientation you give what? ; insulin, glucose

Initial stages of sedation what pt feels?

19. Condensing osteitis? Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of an asymptomatic vital tooth. Radiopacity may be caused by low-grade pulp irritation. This process is asymptomatic and bening. It does not require endodontic therapy.



2 questions on Periapical Cemental ossifying

What cyst in roots of mandibular premolar? lateral periodontal (also is the least common gral. cyst)


What lesions are not radiopaque? ; Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT),

ameloblastic fibroma, odontoma


Least likely to occur, AOT, odontogenic myxoma

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor (AOT): Teens, females; anterior jaws; in association with the crowns of impacted teeth. Well – circumscribed unilocular RL lesion, may have small opaque foci. Enucleation, totally bening, encapsulated lesion that does not regres.


Which anticancer drugs effect on folic acid? Methotrexate


RG pictures Rg ameloblastic fibro odontoma

9 year old kid swollen gingiva, recureent skin infections

what is complication of maxillary molar extractions

what is easily curable, macule, hematoma, or something?

2 questions on Incisal guidance

RPD I bar fractured what you do? Soldiering

What does conjugation do to a drug? Make IT more water soluble


Problem with manual dexterity, what will he have problem with?




Dexterity comes by what age? A.3-4 years

B.1-2 years C.5-6 years D.7-8 years


What surface of a tooth benefits the most from systemic fluoride Roots

Pits and fissures

Smooth surfaces


Which surface part of the tooth gets the least benefit of flouride?

1-Occlusal, 2-Proximal, 3-Root,


The use of fluorides is the best approach to preventing caries. Fluoride, however, is believed to be least effective on the occlusal or chewing tooth surfaces.


Characteristic feature of Achondroplasia?


-open bite

-midface deficiency


Patient with achondroplasia, what will you most probably see

class 2

open bite

c) class 3


Which is more prone to injury in mand molar extraction :

1) IAN

Lingual nerve


Trauma to inferior alveolar nerve may occur in the area of the roots of the mandibular third molars. Lingial nerve travels very close to the lingual cortex of the mandible in this area.


For a population, the researcher divides the number of disease cases by the number of people. By so doing, the investigator will have calculated which of the following rates:

a- incidence b- odds ratio c- prevalence d- specificity


Orange stain is added to porcelain in order to? Decrease value, increase the chroma of a basically yellow shade. Staining a porcelain restoration will reduce the value (as will using a complementary color). It’s almost impossible to increase the Master app: orange stain is commonly used to change the hue of porcelain.


A 50yr old male patient has been advised for multiple extractions in relation to tooth #4, #6, #15, #20, #22, #25. Which of the following is the correct extraction sequence?

A) # 4, #6, #15, #25, #22, #20

B )#4, #15, #6, #25, #22, #20

C) #15, #4, #6, #20, #25, #22 – Canines are extracted last

D) #25, #22, #20, #6, #4, #15

E) #15, #6, #4, #25, #20, #22


Which of the following would you NOT prescribe for a patient receiving Warfarin (Coumadin®)?

1. Acetylsalicylic acid.




(1) (2) (3) B. (1) and (3) C. (2) and (4) D. (4) only E. All of the above.

Metronidazole and Erythromycin inhibits warfarin metabolism. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation and causes bleeding.


Where would you look in a scientific journal to find the dependent and independent variables


· Materials · Methods ** Moby pg 225




Which antibiotic is appropriate for premedication in the penicillin allergic patient?


b. Clindamycin

Erythromycin d. Amoxicillin e. Ampiciilin


Which one is the most likely to promote proliferation of subgingival, black-pigmented bacteroides.

A. Oral cont raceptives

Propranolol Underal®)

Chloroth iazide (Diuril®

The drug-of-choice for the treatment of adrenergically induced arrhythmias: quinidine.

lidocaine. phenytoin.

propranolol. Propranolol is a non selective B locker so it blocks adrenergically B1 receptor, B 1 receptor action is heart rate and force

Propranolol and epinephrine given together: epinephrine is adrenergic neurotransmitter causing increase in HR and PB… propranolol would block beta causing bradycardia instead


Which of the following locations would a perforation demonstrate the best prognosis?

(1)Apical 1/3 of root (2)Middle 1/3 of root (3)Coronal 1/3 of root

Perforations located close to the apex have better prognosis than those near the crestal bone (Google books) – talking bout root surfaces. “Coronal third of the root, the prognosis is poor.” Mosby pg 20.


Study among smokers and nonsmoker for 6 years (2010-2016) to develop disease? 1 Cross sectional study

2 Cohort study

Case Control study 4 Interventional study

Cohort study: prospective cohort study – a general population is followed through time to see who develops the disease. The investigators choose or define a sample of subjects who do not yet have the outcome of interest. Retrospective cohort study: used to evaluate the effect that a specific exposure has had on population. Investigators choose or define a sample of subjects who had the outcome of interest.


They measure risk factors in each subject that may have predicted the subsequent outcome.


Case control study based on A risk

B exposure. C disease D incident

Case-control study: people with a condition (cases) are compared with people without it (controls) but who are similar in other characteristics. Hypothesized causal exposures are sought in the past medical records. Prevalence.


A study which is conducted in different cases to find out the etiology of different diseases varying in different subjects:

A) case control study

clinical trial

cross sectional stud


Cross-sectional study:


B. Analytical



Hyperplastic lingual tonsils may resemble which of the following?

Epulis fissuratum

Lingual varicosities

3. SCC

median rhomboid 5. Prominent fungiform papillae.


Sarcoidosis resembles? a,Median Rhomboid glossitis b,Benign migratory glossitis c-granuloma

No tuberculosis and histoplasmosis ..choose from above. Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by granuloma formation in a variety of organs.


Where does the epithelial for a graft come from? with

a. Donor epithelium

Donor connective tissue

Recipient epithelium d. Recipient connective tissue


Ultrasonic scalers are contraindicated with composite restoration … T

When scaling porcelain and composites, the use of an ultrasonic scaler is contraindicated. Porcelain may fracture or lose marginal integrity. Composites have shown surface alterations, and amalgams have shown a loss of marginal integrity and surface damage.


The longest acting .most potent and most toxic LA



2 dibucaine




Class II amalgam restoration has a overhang at gingival margin. This might have been caused by which

of the following?

poor adaptation of the matrix band

poor carving

c. did not wedge the matrix band

Overhang – wedge Overcontour- matrix


Excessive VDo= less freeway space decreased VDO= more freeway space? T


Not reversible index is:

a.perio b.gingival c.DMFT d.OHI-S


DMFT index is only used for permanent T/F


DMFT index limitation means? This only shows you the history of decay, missing, and filled teeth in ones mouth. It doesn’t give you anymore info than that. So lets say the patient has root caries; DMFT will not tell you anything on that, or if the patient has any sealants, it will not give you any info on that


DMFT (decayed-missing-filled teeth index) – Best index DMFS (surfaces)


What will account for the anterior space for permanent mandibular incisors

Flaring max. Incisors

2. Primate space

Leeway space

Which allows more space for eruption of permanent mandibular incisors?

Leeway space (For late shift) – Leeway is the diff in MD width bet primary C 1st n 2nd molars and perm C 1st n 2nd premolars.

Primate space

Leeway space – Difference in the size b/w primary posterior teeth and the permanent canine and premolars. Max- 1.3 mm per quadrant Mandi- 3.1 mm per quadrant

Primate spaces- Naturally occurring space in primary dentition. Max- B/w lat incisor and canine… Mandible- B/w canine and 1st molar


8 years old Mandibular second primary molar, painful You did extraction what space maintenance after

A. band and loop


B distal shoe

(at 8 yrs old permanent first molar already erupted)


Little girl had ALL, had radiolucency in furcation of primary 2nd molar. What is the treatment?

• Extraction




Radiolucency in furcation: In primary molars, the initial irreversible pulpitis radiographic sign is furcation radiolucency. Luglie found that 77% of the primary molars studied had accessory canals in the furcation area, explaining why the radiolucency appears there first. In permament molars the radiolucency appears at the apex because it is where most accessory canals are located. The size of the furcation radiolucency in a primary molar is nor a contraindication to pulpectomy.


Pulp therapy is contraindicated:

Patients susceptible to bacterial endocarditis

Patients with leukemia Patient with nephritis Patients with cancer

Patients with depressed polymorphonuclear leukocyte and granulocyte counts.


Contraindications for pulpectomy:

Nonrestorable tooth

Internal or external root resorption

Teeth without accessible canals (commonly first primary molars) Significant bone loss.


Carbide bur with more cutting blades

rough surface at high speed

Rough surface at low speed

smooth surface at high speed

D. smooth surface at low speed

Therefore, low speeds are generally reserved for excavating decay, using disks, and polishing, while high and ultra speeds are used for bulk reduction, obtaining outline form, and removing old restorations. (Kaplan)


Antibiotic contraindicated with ALCOHOL are Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Antimalarial, flurazolione, Griseofulvin


Antibiotic contraindicated with ALCOHOL are Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Antimalarial, flurazolione, Griseofulvin


MARNE NBDE RQ’s ….. y más!


Proscar is used to treat? Proscar (Finasteride) is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).


Motion sickness medication (not include antihistamines): Scopolamine

The most effective single medication for prophylaxis against motion sickness is SCOPOLAMINE.


3 years old child with 5 mm intruded:

Observe Extraction Ortho eruption


Most common respiratory emergency




Upper first molar forceps: 150



Maxillary forceps 99 –> Maxi anterior

150–> maxi premolar

18 53 88 (R & L) –> Maxi first and second molar 210–> Maxi 3rd Molar

Mandibular forceps 103–> Mandi anterior

151–> Mandi premolar

13, 15,16,17,23–> Mandi first and second molar 222–> Mandi third

Deciduous forceps 101–> for all teeth


1997 law CHIP: T – For children in families whose income too high to qualify for Medicaid and private is too costly for Offers basic preventive and diagnostic services. Dental coverage was not a requirement in state (chip) then in 1997 its included in 49-50 states (mosby 221 page)


Dual cured vs light cured, color stability? T – Light cure more stable


Image: looked like Geography tongue, (but was not include in option) In lateral border of tongue, was not there 3 weeks ago

Erytropakia: clinical term to describe any erythematous (red) area on a mucous membrane, that cannot be attributed to any other pathology.

Lichen planus

Geo. Tongue: inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the tongue, usually on the dorsal surface. It is characterized by areas of smooth, red depapillation (loss of filliform papillae) which migrate over time. The cause is unknown, but the condition is entirely benign (importantly, it does not represent oral cancer), and there is no curative treatment. Uncommonly, geographic tongue may cause a burning sensation on the tongue, for which various treatments have been described with little formal evidence of efficacy.


Nitroglycerin (antianginal = coronary artery vasodilator) side effects: The two most common adverse effects caused by nitroglycerin are orthostatic hypotension and headache It is sublingually effective within 2-4 minutes – 0.3mg). Antianginal drug: Nitrate: Nitroglycerin: This drug is the single most effective agent available for the management of acute angina episodes. Note: It dilates mostly veins. Indications: angina, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. (FA)


Patient taking digitalis and diuretics. What’s the patient is suffering from? CHF – Cardiac glycosides or “digitalis”, Digoxin is the most versatile and widely used. They are used to treat most SUPRAVENTRICULAR ARRHYTMIAS, CARDIOGENIC SHOCK AND CHRONIC HEART FAILURE. Drug interactions: many drugs affect digoxin levels.

However, digoxin does not affect the levels of other drugs, In addition, when beta– blockers are added to digoxin in patients with AV conduction abnormalities, complete heart block can result. Erythromycin, clarithromycin and tetracycline may increase digitalis absorption and toxicity. Thyroid replacement therapy increases dose


requirements of digoxin. Drugs that lower plasma potassium levels (Thiazide and loop diuretics) increase digitalis toxicity. Of both digitalis and diuretic given what the pt will have? It will increase digitalis toxicity and lead to arriyhymia.


22 years old separated lesions in tongue and pharynge, fever,

Herpetic gingivoestomatitis: Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis (also known as primary herpetic gingivostomatitis) generally affects children under the age of three and young adults. There are prodromal symptoms (fever, malaise, irritability, headache, dysphagia, vomiting, lymphadenopathy) 1 to 2 days prior to local lesions. Then small, yellowish vesicles form, which rupture quickly, resulting in shallow, round, discrete ulcers with an erythematous halo – DD

Aphtous ulcer

Herpangina: also called mouth blisters, is a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term “herpangina virus” refers to coxsackievirus A, but it can also be caused by coxsackievirus B or echoviruses. Symptoms include sudden fever with sore throat, headache, loss of appetite, and often neck pain. Within two days of onset an average of four or five (but sometimes up to twenty) 1 to 2 mm diameter grayish lumps form and develop into vesicles with red surrounds, and over 24 hours these become shallow ulcers, rarely larger than 5 mm diameter, that heal in one to seven days. These lesions most often appear on the tonsillar pillars (adjacent to the tonsils), but also on the soft palate, tonsils, uvula, or tongue.


Neurogenic sarcoma associated with what? Neurofibromatosis Neurofibroma may appear as solitary lesions or as multiple lesions as part of the syndrome called neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease of skin). The solitary neurofibroma is most commonly found on the skin: in the oral cavity, the tongue and buccal mucosa are most commonly affected. Derived from Schwann cells and perineural Treatment: 1. Solitary: surgical excision – 2. Neurofibromatosis: removal is impractical due to number of lesions, it is best left untreated because multiple recurrences may be associated with malignant transformation to neurogenic sarcoma. The importance of the lesions is the high risk (5% -15%) of malignant transformation.


Axillary freckling, lich nodules. Neurofibromatosis type I (von Recklinghausen’s disease). Clinical features: six or more café-au-lait macules that are greater than 1.5 cm. These are usually smooth-surfaced (Coast of California) / Two or more neurofibromas OR one plexiform neurofibroma (patognomonic for the condition) / Axillary freckling (called Crowe’s sign) / Iris hamartomas (called Lisch nodules) / Optic gliomas and several types of osseous lesions are


4 years old kid is


Bossy Uncooperative


In US most dental pay is: private pay? Out of pocket


Histology shows parakeratinized epithelial lining and basal paragliding cells

OKC (Keratocystic odontogenic tumor – KOTs): Most common in patients aged 10-40, multiple lesions found in children may be component of the “nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome” – Gorlin syndrome, the chief site of involvement is the mandible in the posterior body and ascending ramus, the tendency to grow in an anterior- posterior direction without bony expansion, carry a recurrence rate of 30%. Radiographic: well – demarcated area of radiolucency with corticated margins, unilocular or multilocular, they cannot be distinguished from other cysts radiographically. Microscopically: the lining epithelium is uniformly thin, (6-8 cell layers) and has wavy parakeratin, the basal layer is palisaded with intensely staining (hyperchromatic) nuclei, no rete pegs are present.


Researcher has set alpha 0.05. Results showed p value 0.01 and researcher reject null What type of error is it? / Experiment was done and error 0.05 was the goal of the experiment. After experiment was completed, the error was 0.01. The question asks what type of error was it? Type 1 error

If p<0.05, reject the Ho: the observer outcome is judged to be incompatible and the alternative hypothesis is adopted. In this case, the results are said to be “statistically significant”.

If p>0.05, accept the Ho.

A type I error occurs when the null hypothesis (H0) is true, but is rejected. It is asserting something that is absent, a false hit. A type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is false, but erroneously fails to be rejected. It is failing to assert what is present, a miss.


Anterior teeth class 4 big composite done few weeks ago. The filling is acceptable but too light. What to do?

Re do


Apply composite tint


How to differentiate endodontal and periodontal abscess

Pulp testing .. same with vitality test Percussion


Patient had tooth extraction and wants to sleep at night. What analgesic do you prescribe? Naproxen (long lasting)


Anterior, fractured tooth needs crown lengthening. Which surgery do you do? Gingivectomy

APF with Osseous contouring

APF without osseous contouring


Veneer reduction on facial: 0.5 mm

PFM is too opaque on Invisalign 3 rd: insufficient 2 plane reduction


Central tendency question:

Mean: adding, dividing

Median: middle measurement in a set of data where half the data are above and half


the data are below the number.


Positively skewed: large number of low scores and small number of very high scores.

Negative skewed: large number of high scores and a relatively small number of low scores.


When is elective RCT? Contraindications

Leukimia, uncontroll DM , recent MI


Gingivectomy indications: Gingiva Hyperplasia/Hypertrophy and suprabony pockets!


Gingivectomy incision? Above mucogingival junction

Remineralized enamel characteristics: Shiny and hard, darker

When does enamel start to demineralize (critical ph) 5 – T

Which is most important: value – T

Which show saturation of color: chroma Hue is color

Chroma is saturation of color


Which is not a differential diagnosis of DI? AI


Ectodermal dysplasia


When supernumerary tooth is seen? Cleidocraneal dysplasia T – Gardner too


Multiple osteomas seen in: Gardner ‘s

Patient is behaving bad but dentist ignored him and continues treatment. What hi is doing? Extinction


Aspirin side effect (multiple side effect in each option)

Overdosage of salicylates (acute aspirin toxicity) is life threatening and requires intensive supportive treatment in a hospital. Initial symptoms include RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS with HYPERPNEA and TACHYPNEA, NAUSEA, VOMITING, HYPOKALEMIA, TINNITUS, HEADACHE, DIZZINESS, CONFUSION, DEHYDRATION, HYPERTHERMIA,


and GI DISTURBANCES. Aspirin is an irreversible platelet inhibitor and can reduce blood clotting to prolong bleeding. Low doses of aspirin taken regularly can have a cardio-protective effect. These doses reduce thromboxane production in platelets to result in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. In this way, aspirin has the ability to inhibit the formation of life-threatening thrombi (blood cloths).


CONTRAINDICATIONS: bleeding disorders (aspirin will increase bleeding time), do not use in children (Reye syndrome), pregnancy (specially during the third trimester), peptic ulcers (aspirin may cause bleeding of the GI tract), ASTHMA, RHINITIS, NASAL POLIPS, concomitant use of anticoagulants.


Dens invaginatus commonly found in? Max Lat

Fluoride replaces which group: hydroxyl – What the fluoride treatment does is replace hydroxyl groups with


The size of radiolucency in #8 increase after treatment it can’t be due to

Apical scar

Change in angulation Canal leakage


Chronic periodontitis most seen in? Black male – T


Contraindications of elective RCT? Recent MI, uncontrollable DM


Arbitrary articulator


Group function: Only possible when Anterior/Canine guidance absent! Otherwise posterior teeth disoclude! Group function occlusion is characterized by having working contacts. Sometimes called unilateral balanced occlusion, is an occlusal relationship in which all posterior teeth on a side contact evenly as the jaw is moved toward that side (working side). All teeth on the non-working side are free of any contact. The group function of the teeth on the working side distributes the occlusal load. The absence of contact on the non-working side prevents those teeth from being subjected to the destructive, obliquely directed forces found in non-working interferences. It also saves the centric holding cusps, the mandibular buccal cusps

and the maxillary cusps from excessive wear. THE OBVIOUS ADVANTAGE IS THE MAINTENANCE OF THE OCCLUSION. Some relationships are not conductive to cuspid protected occlusion (canine – diclusion of all of the posterior teeth) such as CLASS II or end-to-end relationships. Some relationships are not amenable to group function such as CLASS II, deep vertical overlap. When placing a crown on a maxillary canine, if you

change a canine protected occlusion to group function you increase the potential for a “non-working side” interference.


43. Balanced occlusion: All teeth contact during all excursive movements in complete dentures — CR coincides CO – no anterior guidance


Orthostatic hypotension ( meds who can cause it): Opiods, anti hypertensives, nitrates, hypoglycemic


Medication interacting with nitroglycerin: EPINEPHRINE (physiologic antagonists)


Medication interacting with LA


Treatment for cardiovascular disease: Statins


Nitroglycerin, propanolol, and something else are all used to treat which of the following conditon? angina – Nitroglycerin is a vasodilator, dilates the coronary arteries for proper blood flow


Which of the following is not directly related to a drug toxicity of nitroglycerine? a. Dizziness projectile vomiting c.tachycardia d.Headaches


Which of the following medications increases the risk of bleeding?

a) Dabigatran – Blood thinner. It can treat and prevent blood clots, reducing the risk of stroke.

Sprinolactone c) Verapamil d) Nitroglycerin e) Losartan


A patient who uses nitroglycerine has

rheumatic heart


C. coronary artery disease

high blood


Indications: angina, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. (FA)


Nitroglycerin dilates the coronary arteries in angina pectoris by a.Decreasing the heart rate reflexly Increasing the metabolic work of the myocardium c.Direct action on smooth muscle in the vessel walls d.Increasing the effective refractory period in the atrium e.Blocking beta-adrenergic receptor


Which antitubercosal drug inhibits the syntesis of arabinogalactan ?? a)isoniazid b)rifampin c)pyrazinamide d)rifabutin e)ethambutol


Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with which medication?

hydralazine, procainamide, isoniazid, all.


Which of the following drugs is associated with the reaction of stevens johnson syndrome? quinidine b.valproic acid c.ethosuximide d.isoniazid


which of the following agents is used for HIV infections?

a. Amantadine b. Acyclovir c. Zidovudine d. Ribavirin e. Isoniazid


The most potent anti tubercular drug is

Isoniazid (often given in a four drug regimen – bacteriostatic and bactericidal)

Rifampicin: most active against bacteria undergoing cell division (bacteriostatic OR bactericidal)


Ethambutol: active only against mycobacterium

Because the mycobacterium organism tends to develop resistance to any single antitubercular drug, combination drug therapy is standard in the treatment of tuberculosis.


Which of the following has ototoxic adverse effects?


b. Vancomycin


Ceftaroline e. Isoniazid


Antibiotic most likely to cause failure of oral contraceptives Penicillin


Tetracycline Cephalosporin Macrolide


Locally delivered antimicrobials used to treat infected periodontal pockets include all of the following EXCEPT

Metronidazole B. Chlorhexidine C. Clindamycin D. Doxycycline fibres E. Doxycycline polymerics


What is the best antibiotic to be given in LAP (localized aggressive periodontitis): Metronidazole or doxycycline – best for perio


Which of the following would you NOT prescribe for a patient receiving Warfarin (Coumadin®)?

1. Acetylsalicylic acid.




(1) (2) (3) B. (1) and (3) C. (2) and (4) D. (4) only E. All of the above.

Metronidazole and Erythromycin inhibits warfarin metabolism. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation and causes


Patient who r taking Warfarin should not take the following Medications : 1- metronidazole & antifungal which ends with zole (ketoconazole)

2- antibiotics (tetracycline, macrolides) 3- antiplatelet (aspirin)

4- NAIDs


The most appropriate antibiotic for a periapical dental abscess is pen V. B. cephalosporin. C. erythromycin. D. metronidazole E.ampicillin.


Which one mostly use for nausea vominting after surgery

promethazin diphenhydramine chloropromasin


Which of the following drugs is most likely to dry secretions in the oral cavity?

Diazepam B. Promethazine C. Physostigmine D. Propantheline E.Diphenhydramine


Each of the following non sedating antihistamines would be contraindicated in an individual taking cimetidine for heartburn except Which one is the exception?



3 fexofenadine – only antihistaminic to be taken with cimetidine

hydroxyzine 5 terfenadine


When patient has asthmatic attack on dental chair, all of the following can be given by IV except:




4. Diphenhydramine – avoid antihistamines


Each of the following is an advantage of midazolam over diazepam EXCEPT one. Which one is this EXCEPTION?

Less incident of thrombophlebitis

Shorter elimination half-life

No significant active metabolites

Less potential for respiratory depression More rapid and predictable onset of action when given intramuscularly

Most BDz sedative used in dentistry ? midazolam – diazepam


What benzo do you give to a 37 yo pt with liver cirrhosis?

Diazepam b. Midazolam c. Oxazepam

Follow LOT (Lorazepam, Oxazepam, Temazepam)


MEPERIDINE (Demerol): narcotic that produce SEDATION and RELIEVES PAIN

MIDAZOLAM (Versed): primarily anti-anxiety, short acting, great for short procedures. Comes as a liquid for pre-operative sedation in children and as injectable for IV conscious sedation.

Benzodiazepines should never be taken with any form of alcohol. Serious potentiation of the sedative effect of each will occur leading to unexpected inebriation and respiratory depression.

Flumazenil (Mazicon): a benzodiazepine antagonist, may be used to reverse the residual effect of benzodiazepines in the event of an overdose


Decreased mental performance, audiovisual ability, and manual

AT high doses and/or high exposures: reduced fertility, spontaneous abortion, neurological and kidney disease as well as bone marrow suppression (DD#39)


Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is used in

A) osteoradio necrosis B) bisphosphonate related osteo necrosis C) both


Which is the injectable bisphosphonate that can create complication in dental treatment ? Palmidronate , Etidronate


Bisphosphonate used for treatment of multiple myeloma – T


Which of the following represents the most common form of gingival periodontal disease in school-aged children?

Juvenile periodontitis B. Localized acute gingivitis C. Primary herpetic gingivostomatitis D. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis


A 20 year old student presents with clinical symptoms of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG). Food intake for the last 24 hours indicates a soft diet lacking in fruits and The patient’s diet is important to investigate further because

A deficiency of certain nutrients causes

B. NUG may be limiting the food choices the patient is making.

NUG can be cured through modification of

Patients with NUG lose interest in


Metronidazole can be used to treat


recurrent aphthous

C. necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG).

primary herpetic gingivostomatitis


What is not indicated for management of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis? Pain medication

Saline rinses

Light debridement Systemic antibiotics

Topical steroids – because it will further depress immune system


Which of the following organisms are pathognomonic of acute necrotic ulcerative gingivitis

Spirochaetes and fusobacterium SP B. Spirochaetes and eikenella corrodes

Polymorphs and lymphocytes D. Actinobacillus actinomycetes comitans oral capnocytophaga E. Porphyromonas gingivalis and prevotella intermedia

All of the following should be considered for systemic antibiotic except

Extraction of tooth with acute dento alveolar abscess

B. Necrotic ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) unless it is acute.

Extraction of 38 or 48 with acute pericoronitis D. Full mouth extraction for a patient with perio disease


Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and acute herpetic gingivostomatitis can be differentiated clinically by

A. location of the lesions: interdental papillae involved in ANUG but not in herpes

temperature of the




In which of the following situations can topical corticosteroids be used?

Angular cheilitis. B. Candidiasis.

Herpes labialis. D. Erosive lichen planus. E. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis


Which of the following periodontal disease causes the most rapid destruction of alveolar bone

Periodontal abscess.

Chronic periodontitis.

Phenytoin induced gingival hyperplasia


Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis


Localized gingival recession of a permanent mandibular incisor in an 8 year old can be caused by

vitamin C


C. localized aggressive periodontitis.

traumatic E. necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

NOTES: Diabetes doesn’t directly cause gingival recession but is a risk factor for periodontal conditions. Occlusal trauma may cause temporary pain and tooth mobility during occlusal contact but does NOT typically cause gingival recession. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis may cause gingival recession at some point but it is NOT a common dental condition.


What is mainly contraindicated for Orthodontics tooth movement?


b) Corticosteroid



PSYCHOSIS AND SALT RETENTION. Remember: pharmacologic effects of mineralocorticoids include an increase in sodium retention and an increase in potassium depletion, which can lead to edema and hypertension if excessive and may lead to dehydration and hypotension if insufficient. ADVERSE REACTION: Cushing syndrome, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, peptic ulcers, and an increased risk of infection. (DD#129)

GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION not done in? Shallow infrabony defects, grade 3 furcations, 1,2 wall defects


Which of the following tetracycline class drugs should only be taken once daily due to its long half life?

Demethylchlortetracycline (2)Doxycycline (3)Chlortetracycline


How do you determine arch length? Primary teeth – distal to to 2 molar to distal to 2molar / Permanent – distal of second primary molar to distal of second primary molar

Arch width ? Inter canine distance


Which medicament can be used during pulpotomy procedure? a.calcium hydroxide b.EDTA MTA d.Flowable composite

NOTE: Used in replacement of formocresol, however, because of the high cost, it is not often used.


Connective Tissue Graft is the most predictable treatment modality for root coverage

– T


DD#101, 102, 103




Buccal cusp inner inclines of Upper teeth

Lingual cusp inner inclines of Lower teeth


Lingual cusp inner inclines Upper teeth (NBDE2)

Buccal cusp inner inclines Lower teeth

Never grind the maxillary lingual cusp (primary centric holding cusps)


Working interference – LUBL. Correction- BULL

Non-working Interference: Balancing side (non-working side) interferences generally occur on the inner aspect of the facial cusps of mandibular molars. Correction- LUBL


Protrusive Interference: occurs between the DISTAL inclines of the facial cusps on MAXILLARY POSTERIOR teeth and MESIAL inclines of the facial cusps of MANDIBULAR POSTERIOR teeth – DUML. Correction – MUDL (Grind MESIAL inclines of MAXILLARY teeth and DISTAL inclines of MANDIBULAR teeth).


CENTRIC: Centric interference (forward slide) can be corrected by grinding mesial inclines of maxillary teeth and distal inclines of mandibular teeth – MUDL.

Drugs and their antidotes

acetaminophen – acetylcycteine

2. benzodiazepine – flumazenil (Mazicon)

coumadin – vitamin k

curare – tensilon

cyanide poisoning – methylene blue

digitalis – digibind

ethylene poisoning – antizol

8. heparin – protamine sulfate

iron – desferal

lead – edetate disodium (edta), dimercaprol (bal), succimer (chemet) 11. lovenox – protamin sulfate

magnesium sulfate – calcium gluconate

morphine sulfate – naloxone hydrochloride

methotrexate – leucovorine

mestinon – atropine sulfate

neostigmine – pralidoxime chloride (pam)

17. penicillin – epinephrine

vincristine (oncovin) – hyaluronidase,also apply moderate heat to disperse drug and minimize (oncovin – iv administration only)


Poison antidotes

arsenic dimercaprol, succimer

barbiturates (phenobarbital)———————— urine alkalinization, dialysis, activated charcoal

beta-blockers glucagon caffeine, metaproterenol, theophylline esmolol

carbon monoxide——————————– 100% oxygen, hyperbaric o2

cholinesterase inhibitors———————- atropine

cyanide ——————————————— nitrite, sodium thiosulfate ethylene glycol———————– ethanol

gold dimercaprol heparin protamine sulfate iron salts deferoxamine isoniazid vitamin b6

lead caedta, dimecaprol, succimer methanol — ethanol, fomepizole, dialysis

methemoglobin/cyanide poisoning————— methylene blue

muscarinic receptor blockers——————— physostigmine

opioids naloxone organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitors pralidoxime

phencyclidine hydrochloride (pcp)—————- ng suction

quinidine, tca’s————————————— sodium bicarbonate

salicylates —————————————————— urine alkalinization,dialysis, activated charcoal

snake bites antivenin

tissue plasmogen activator (tpa), streptokinase—– aminocaproic acid

warfarin vitamin k, ffp

alcohol——————– Disulfiram (Antabuse)



NITROUS OXIDE ————- VITAMIN B12 synthesis in the human body by interfering with the enzyme methionine synthase, depleting the body of VITAMIN B12 (brain and nerve damage).


COCORTICOIDS ——————– Latent TB or fungal infection, AIDS, herpes infections and patients with peptic ulcer disease (specifically, gastric ulcer) – these drugs themselves may cause peptic ulcers, congestive heart failure. Orthodontic tooth movement. (DD125)

NITROUS OXIDE ———————- Head injury, bowel obstruction, pneumothorax, middle ear and sinus infections, COPD (emphysema or bronchitis – NOT ASTHMA, there ARE NOT contraindications for the use of nitrous oxide sedation in asthmatic patients), first trimester of pregnancy, with whom communication is difficult (autistic patients), having a contagious disease since it is difficult to sterilize entire tubes.

NITROGLYCERIN ———————– Myocardial infarction with hypotension, hypotension, and glaucoma. (FA)



Asthma is a condition characterized by episodic reversible narrowing of the airways. The most common symptoms include episodic wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. The disease can begin at any age, but about half of patients develop asthma before the age of 10. There are three basic pathophysiologic changes: (1) Airway inflammation (2) Airway obstruction and (3) Airway hyperresponsiveness

Important: An acute asthmatic attack is best treated by administration of supplemental oxygen with an inhalaled beta2-adrenergic agonist (alhuterol, terbutaline). If the patient is resistant to beta agonists, theophylline should be considered. In a severe asthmatic attack that is unresponsive to the

above treatment, 0.3 mg of 1:1000 epinephrine should be administered subGutaneously.

Important: There are no contraindications for the use of nitrous oxide sedation in asthmatic pa- tients. Because anxiety is a stimulus for an asthmatic attack, nitrous oxide sedation is actually ben- eficial for these patients. If patient is taking steroids, consult physician for the possible need for corticosteroid augmentation.

General guidelines for the management of patients with asthma:

Minimize stress: short appointments, use sedation techniques (nitrou.s, diazepani or oilier oral antianxiety medications ).

• Avoid antihistaniines

Minimize epinephrine use (local anesthesia up to 2 carpules of 2% lidocaine with 100,000 epinephrine may be used)

• Avoid erythromycins and clarithroniycin in patients on theophylline

Be aware of aspirin sensitivity: there is a clinical triad of asthma, nasal polyps, and aspirin sen- sitivity. It is important to be sure that the patient with asthma does not have this triad when as- pirin-containing preparations are

Status asthmaticus is the most severe clinical form of asthma, usually requiring hospitalization, that does not respond adequately to ordinary therapeutic measures. lf not managed properly, chronic partial airway obstruction may lead to death from respiratory acidosis (which is produced by liy- poxemia and hypercapnia).




Three dentist hired a hygienist – patient injured by hygienist, whose liability? Hygienist

Hygienist and attending dentist

all d 3 dentist

4th dun remember


3mm crowding in Mandibular ant permanent teeth? No treatment

Extract primary canine

Disk distal of primary canine And 1 more option




Early treatment: Mixed dentition minor crowding (up to 4 mm) may be corrected by proper utilization of the leeway space.


Class 2 dea prescription? Hydrocodone + ibuprofen = CLASS III

Hydrocodone + acetaminophen = CLASS II Codeine + acetaminophen = CLASS III Oxycodone + acetaminophen = CLASS II


Tooth extraction? On day of dialysis

1 day prior to dialysis 1 day after dialysis No ext


Which requires elective root canal? Pain in tooth

Exposed pulp


Severely tilted

Dun remember the 4 th option

Sometimes the elective root canal treatment of a tooth with a healthy pulp is indicated within a broader framework of restorative care. If severely tilted, preparation of the tooth for a crown is likely to involve hitting the pulp horn, with the possible need for endodontics on that tooth.


Clamp 212 (or some no. Dun remember exactly) is used for class 5 restoration Where to punch the hole?

Long sentences asking where to punch the hole – facially, lingually


Class 5 – restoration of choice? Composite

Rmgi = Resin modified glass ionomer Dun remember other 2 options 8)Most common in man?



Dun remember other 2 options


CaOh success depends on?

Providing 2mm of gic base


Which material most stable in moisture Polysulphide

Polyvinyl siloxane


Wat does not aid in restriction and resistance of crown? Parallel walls

Surface area

Less convergence

1 more option


Tooth crown ration fracture most common with?

mandibular first molar (max CI in trauma horizontal fracture, mand molars – vertical fracture)


patient allergic to?

Nickel Cobalt Chromium Berrylium


Patient I dun have time to quit smoking?

Precontemplation Contemplation Denial Acceptance


Which is trademark name? Generic



Something dun remember the exact question


Patient disoriention and something else? Insulin

Glucose Epinephrine Atropine



Short term memory loss

Long term memory loss

Most common disease in old age? depression


Lingual flange recorded by? mylohyoid, genioglossus (lingual frenum), palatoglossus (retromylohyoid area), superior pharyngeal constrictor (distolingual extension). There is one option to choose will go with genioglossus it effect the length of lingual flange)


20) Distobuccal by? The distobuccal extension is determined by the position and action of the masseter muscle


Mandibular buccal frenum which muscle? Triangularis

Zygomaticus Caninus

One muscle from t dunno 4th option dunno

Mandibular labial frenum = orbicularis muscle Mandibular buccal vestibule = buccinator muscle.

The buccal vestibule: proper extension into this area provides the best support for the mandibular denture. This area is referred to as the buccal shelf.


The lower buccal labial frenum is: also morphologically similar to the upper buccal labial frenum but again less developed. It contains muscle fibers from the depressor anguli oris, or triangularis (another muscle of facial expression)


Which sinus involved in fracture ( I dun remember which)?

Maxillary (Mx lefort one)


Naso ethmoidal One more option


Which movement of eye restricted in fracture of floor of orbit?


Inf Lateral




Type I orbital floor blow-out fractures FEATURES ‘ Limitation of ocular movement on up- gaze.


Question asking what is leeway space? Leeway space is the size differential between the PRIMARY POSTERIOR TEETH (canine, first and second molars), and the PERMANENT CANINE AND FIRST AND SECOND PREMOLAR – about 3.1 mm per side in the mandibular arch and 3 mm per side in the maxillary arch. (Mn 2.5,Mx 1.5 for each arch)


Scrap amalgam Sealed (with sulfide) Metal container Open

Mercury chloride solution


Where is the retentive arm placed? Gingival 1/3 (Between middle and gingival third below high of contour) – reciprocal is made of base metal alloy and retentive is wrought wire


Metal can be used in denture base for the reasons except? Metal has good adaptation and abrasion resistance. Otherwise adequate contour is hard, no esthetic and poor retention. Metal allergy for some patients

The retentive arm of clasp features? Retentive arm is rigid ant 1/3 rd, semi rigid middle third, and flexible terminal 1/3rd. Passive until


What does opaquer porcelain help in all except? Opaque porcelain masks the dark oxide color and will provide porcelain metal bond. Opaque does not make the main color of the


30) Y is gold preferred over amalgam? Ideal contour and very biocompatible. Gold thermal expansion near to tooth, gives ideal contours, better marginal integrity, more strength, also very biocompatible.


Which property is imp for burnishing the restoration? yield strength


The inflamed red spots in smokers palate? nicotonic stomatitis


Most common site of caries? Pit n fissure


Red complex which bacteria? PTT – Porphyromonas gingivitis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema


10mA 1sec and .5secs same effect of the film What is the ma?



20 (inverse relation)- time is reduced by half so it will double


1 film was given – underdeveloped and options related to it? Too high temp

Reduced time: Underdeveloped(light film)- developer too cold, developer deplinish, inadequate time

N more 2


16 kg girl max dosage of lidocaine? 16*4.4=70.4

4.4 mg/kg for lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and 7 mg/kg with vasoconstrictor for both child as well as adults.


Buccal root distal to palatal root. Where was d come placed? MESIAL – SLOB (SAME LINGUAL OPPOSITVE BUCCAL)


The bur used to polish porcelain? Steel


Diamond (for cutting)

30-fluted carbide finishing bur is used to plane the porcelain surface and to remove the striations created by the diamond instruments.


The bur with more flutes?

cut efficiently and polish efficiently

Does not cut efficiently and polish efficiently Cut efficiently and do not polish efficiently Nor cut nor polish

The greater the number of cutting blades on a bur results in LESS EFFICIENT cutting but a SMOOTHER SURFACE (polishing burs are of this type). A lesser number of blades on the bur results on MORE EFFICIENT cutting but a rougher surface (crosscut fissure burs at high speed or low speed are of this type).


The type of speed for implant site?

High speed high torque Low speed low torque High speed low torque High torque low speed


The margin on cementum. Which material to be placed in gingival third? Glass ionomer cement ( GICs) or RMGIC W/ sandwich technique


Repair of porcelain process? micro etch, etch, silane bonding


Melanoma location? Palate and maxillary gingiva/alveolar ridge


44)Cause of mucocele? Mucocele caused by ruptured salivary duct, usually due to trauma, seen on the lower lip.


Treatment of ranula? complete excision with gland in new version of Surgical excision if recurs the excise subling gland dbm.


Pierre robin was – Cleft palate 50%, retrognathia and


This was related to Gardener. They didnt mention gardener anywhere just 3 symptoms wat is 4th that u wud check:

Intestinal polyposis, supernumerary teeth, odontomas, dermoid cysts, and colon cancer.


Ration of cleft lip in Caucasian? 1:1000 Lip 1:1000

Palate 1:2000

Both 1:700


Chronic periodontitis common? Male Hispanic

Female Hispanic Male black Female black


Prevelance can be related with which case study? Descriptive


Cause and effect which case study? Clinical trail if no effect then cross sectional study


Osteomas, glossptossis wat wud u check for? Gardner syndrome


Duct of submandibular gland? Wharton


Plastic heat sensitive materials sterilization? Cold (2%glutaradehyde)


Does not reoccur ? Ameloblastoma Odontogenic myxoma

Aot – Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (does not recur) dd card 112


12 month rct increase in size of radiolucency all the reason except?

Healing by apical scar – healing by apical scar will not change in size


Insicive canal Different angulation Leakage


Moa of suphauryl anti diabetic drug? increase insulin production by stimulating b cells of pancreas


Which can be diagnosed only histologically? difference between Radicular cyst vs Granuloma


After 12 months increase in size of lesion in rct treatment teeth except?

Healing by apical scar

Insicive canal Different angulation Leakage


Pulp necrosis type of wat resorption ?

Inflammatory Surface Replacement b N 1 more option


Cellulitis- Neutrophilia Neutropenia Lymphocytosis One more option


OSHA blood borne pathogens – msds sheet:

True – OSHA not related to MSDS sheet


Placement of pfm (porcelain fused to metal) crown margin ant?


At crest of gingiva

In between crest n epi

Crown-to-root ratio:

Minimum—1/1 Best—1/2

Shoulder margin – when esthetics are imperative (minimum of 1 mm of porcelain can be stacked at the margin hiding the metal)


N d wat makes penicillin allergic? Beta lactame ring


Patient has BCC how wud u tell d patient? Good prognosis

do you need to reappointment

this cancer in not as dangerous as others

do you want I called you guardians


the biopsy show that you have a cancer and we do our best to help u out


Wat is best X-ray for detecting bone loss? Bitewing


Most common finding of cherubism? Bilateral swelling of jaw with premature loss of prim teeth and delay eruption of perm teeth, soap bubble


Potassium sparing drug? spironolactone


Gingivectomy indications contraindications? Indication – supragingival pocket, enlargement / Contraindication – infrabony pocket, inadequate width of attached


facial vertical axis divided? 3 equal thirds – Its 3 plane vertically, 5 planes horizontally 71)cleidocranial wat is absent: clavicle

most common salivary gland Tumor: pleomorphic adenoma (mixed tumor)


lots n lots of questions related to case study . Which case study tells


lot of patient management questions related to desensitisation mostly


consent not taken? Which ethic? Violation of Autonomy


treatment with out consent? Battery – legal term in which perform a procedure without consent


liquid in gic: Polyacrylic acid


statements true reg zinc poly carboxylate: Good strength not irritating pulp replace zoe chemical adhesion

high film thickness Chemical bond to enamel


More More RQs

What procedures you cant do in AIDS – Prophylaxis

Chs of band and loop – Given early loss of 1st primary molars

What cyst in roots of mandibular premolar – Lateral periodontal

What lesions are not radiopaque? ; AOT, Ameloblastic fibro odontoma – ameloblastic fifroma – DD: An opaque focus appears within the ameloblastic fibro-odontoma owing to the presence of an odontoma. This lesion, therefore, presents as a combined lucent-opaque lesion, the ameloblastic fibroma is completely

Least likely to occur, AOT, odontogenic myxoma?

What is Brown tumors – Hyperparathyroidism

Conditions have macroglossia? – Acromegaly, beckwith wieddeman syndrome, Hypothyroidism,amyloid oasis,down

You don’t do RCT with PA radiolucency in which patients? Diabetes (uncontrolled DM)

Why you clean tongue? ; esthetic or to prevent odor

Treatment of concussion – do nothing

Too light x-ray? Why – Developer temp cold,under devolped,exhausted devolper

Phelobith location? ; nerve, vein

If you take Rg 10 ma with 1 sec exposure and you take another x ray with .5 sec what MA will you give you want same density rg? 5, 10 or 20 (Inversely proportional)

Mouth breather features – open bite constricted maxilla post cross bite, narrow arch too, short upper lip

Mechanism of fluoride? – Hydroxyl group from hydroxyapatite exchange to form fluorapatite

Lefort 1 includes what structure? Maxilla

When you make rest on molar you make rest deep enough in marginal ridge, buccal incline, lingual? 5 mm marginal ridge

Epinephrine contraindicate in thyroid? T/F – T in In hyperthyroidism

Abcess include marginal and interproximal gingiva called? Gingival abscess, pericornal, periapical

Whats the indication of half erupted third molar in 18 years old – extract? but 17 -21 is when normally 3molars are erupting. In ADA specifications.. Extraction of 3rd molar is not indicated if it is not causing any problems

You can avoid legde if canal is Small, large, short or curved? Short

# of granulocyte for sugery – 15000

Beta 1 selctive actions – Increase heart rate

Papoose contraindication – Mental retarded child, Long procedures, cooperative child

Hemophilia test – PTT

Alplrazolam – Anxiety and panic disorder

5 year old child not cooperative, wat to do? conscious sedation? voice control? ga ?

Precations for hep patient – why universal precaution? Its changed and expanded to be renamed as standered precaution card 63 pt

29. Endo perio operative surgery ortho

Patient smokes, is implant contraindicated – NO (its risk factor)

Primary molar differs from permanent in cervical constriction T

Forcep not used for extraction of root

Most common organism in implant failure; same as regular dentition – Anerobic

Ginseng reacts with which drug – aspirin



Ectodermal dysplasia features – Anadontia , conical ant teeth , thin hair , mostly in male , x link.

Cleidocranial dysplasia what is missing? clavicle

37. Identify periapical cemental dysplasia – Cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) is a benign condition of the jaws that may arise from the fibroblasts of the periodontal ligaments. It is most common in African-American females. The three types are periapical cemental dysplasia (common in those of African descent), focal cemento- osseous dysplasia (Caucasians), and florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (African descent). Periapical occurs most commonly in the mandibular anterior teeth while focal appears predominantly in the mandibular posterior teeth and florid in both maxilla and mandible in multiple quadrants.

Dentigerous cyst radigraph

Regional odontodysplasia identify – Ghost teeth

which week does dental lamina appear? 6 week

Piree Robinson syndrome – Cleft palate, retrognathia and glossoptosis

Ranula treatment – Marsupilization or excision with remove sub lingual gland

Convergence of buccal and lingual wall which tooth? Primary 1st max molar,

Distolingual extension of mandibular denture which muscle – Distolingual just superior constrictor muscle (DD)

Which sounds will you look for placing anterior teeth. – Fricative (labiodental) F and V, formed between the maxillary incisors contacting the wet dry lip line of the mandibular This sounds help determine the position of the incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth.

Incisal edge of max anterior touch were? On the vermilion border

Major connector function? Stability and rigidity

In distal extension where do you put rest? mesialy

Most esthetic pontic design? Ovate

Where to place margin of anterior crown – Subgivingival

Lot of clinical qs presenting different scenarios and you have to choose appropriate treatment

3- 4 qs on But most of them direct

Necrotic pulp with open apex what is treatment of choice? Apexification

1mm exposure what do you do? DPC, pulpotomy,PUlpectomy


Patient comes after 1 week of composite says he does not like the color what will you do? Repeat restoration, add composite and some other options – Redo

Which bur do you use for porcelain polishing? Steel, carbide ,diamond

Action of beta blocker on smooth muscle? Since B2 adrenergic receptors can cause vascular smooth muscle dilation beta-blockers may cause some

58. Action of beta blocker on cardiac muscle – Beta Blockers are drugs that slow the heart rate, decrease cardiac output, lessen the force with which the heart muscle contracts and reduce blood vessel contraction. – Dec cardiac output,dec hr

Which patient requires antibiotic prophylaxis? 2 qs about that – Prosthetic valve, Cyanotic, Previous endocarditis, Valves problems from recently inplanted heart

MOA of sufonylurea – Inc insuline by stimulation of beta cell in pancreas

All are immunosuppressive except? Some wiered choices – Methotrexate, Mecaptopurine, Cyclosporine (All are immune suppression )

Antimetabolite for cancer which affects folic acid? METHOTREXATE

Premolar forcep all except? 150,151 for pm, 99, 203 – EXCEPT 23

Bacteria in chronic periodontitis? DD: gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. Intermedia, C. rectus,

E. corrodens, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa). P. micros, and Treponema and Eubacterium species.

Bacteria in NUG? Fuso, Spirochete, Prevotella

Gingivectomy where to put incision? A beveled incision is made apical to the pocket depth.

What does biologic width comprise of? JE + CT = 2.04

What makes up the periodontium? GIngiva, Alveolar bone, Cementum, PDL

Most common complication of extn of max molar? Alveolar fracture – Sinus perforation

Lefort 1 which sinus affected? Maxillary, ethmoid,frontal,mastoid

A boxer wearing mouthgused comes with complain of jaw opening in the morning. What is your diagnosis? MPDS

Light radigraph cause? Under developer

Lot of qs on patient management. Some straightforward some twisted wording. Moby is must

Cold sterilization which chemical used? Gluteraldihyde

Sodium hypochloride does all except? Chelation

Common cause of failure of amalgam restoration? Moisture contamination, improper design, improper trituration. Failure- inadequate design – Fracture- water contamination

There is a fracture line on amalgam restoration what is the treatment of choice? Redo restoration to check the fracture of tooth, Just remove mesial side and check and some other options

Lot of class 5 what is the material of choice? GIC

Which impression material is moisture tolerant? PVS, polyviny, polyether

Which material has inherent property of binding with water? PVS, Polyvinyl, polyether (hydrocolloid was not an option)

Modulus of elasticity which property? Siffness (DD)

Finger spring applied to move the tooth where will be the most force applied? Tooth dstal,medial – mesio distal direction

Nitrous oxide most common side effect? Just nausea and vomiting (dd)

16kg boy what is the maximum dose of LA – 16*4.4 (dose/kg) = 4


A defiant child does not want to cooperate which method to use? GA, voice contol, HIM

Gold standard for behaviour modification? Systemic desensitization, modelling,voice control

Lot of clinical qs about indications and contraindications of material use in restoration?

Day 2 practice ASD A PAPERS and treatment options for various ortho and perio cases.


Which immunoglobulin is concentrated in gingival clevicular fluid: IgG

Middle-aged male has a fluctuant mass in the midline of neck: A) Thyroglossal duct cyst B) Brachial cleft

What else do S. mutans produce along with dextran after breaking down sucrose:

A) mucopolysaccharides B) macros C) levans D) proteins

Nerve involved in Bell’s palsy: VII

4mm implant, how much do you need buccolingually: 6mm

Mandibular 3rd molar root lost: which space ?

IAN block needle infection where: Pharyngeal, Pterygoid, medial pterygoid muscle

Veneer facial reduction: 0.5mm

PFM buccal margin depth – 5mm

Patient comes back after 1 year of composite restoration with pain and sensitivity –


Radiograph to check integrity of Zygomatic arch – CT/ Submentovertex

TMJ radiograph – MRI for articular disc

Behcet’s syndrome associated with: Aphthous ulcers

Bradycardia treatment – Atropine, scopolamine

Which is NOT used to inhibit salivary secretion – Pilocarpine or Cevimeline

Which is contraindicated in nitrous: nasal congestion – COPD

Which of the following confirms the diagnosis of xerostomia: A) location of probing depths of >4mm. B) location of anterior (I picked this instead of A because chemotherapy causes xerostomia which leads to class V lesions) C) location of partial denture flange

Over titration of Amalgam leads to: decrease setting expansion, decrease corrosion, increase strength

Cavernous thrombosis infection via – lymphatic vessels.. as are on the upper lip is valveless (upper lip infection)

Patient does not have tooth #11 and has all the premolars, which one has the Worst Prognosis: A) fixed bridge from #10-12. B) RPD with pontic for #11 C) Implants

Metalloceramic crown which type of bevel – Chamfer 1mm

On working interferences and how to correct it – BULL – working side LUBL – non workin, MUDL – centric and DUML – protrusion

Wear facet on the mesio marginal ridge of MB cusp of mandibular molar – Protrusive interference

Macroglossia where is not seen (hypoparathyroidsm)

Most prominent cells in crevicular fluid – PMN

Ignoring patient behavior – Operant extinction

A 5 years old fell and max incisors intrude 3 mm ( tx) – OBSERVE


28. Ectodermal hypoplasia – Affect all structures derived from ectoderm: Anhydrosis, Spars hair, Anadontia or hypodontia, fine hair, delicate skin, no sweat glands, nails deformed.

Prominent cell in cellulitis – lyphmphocyte , its chronic

Most tooth lost in perio treatment – Max 2nd molar

Where external bevel incision is made – Giginvectomy – Used in gingivectomy and Its done apical to pocket (junctional epi) and coronal to mucogingival

Disadvantages of modified widman flap – Not eliminate pocket depth, But it removes pocket lining and then shrinkage and reduction

Cleidocraneal dysplasia – No clavicle – Supernumerary teeth delay erruption if teeth. Frontel boosing

34. Early lost of primary teeth Papillon le fever – Papillon levefe, autosomal recessive, impaired in T and B lymphocyte, palmer-planter keratosis , advanced periodontitis in both primary and permenant due to dominant bac (A.A) teeth float in soft tissue, excessive bone loss and mobility.

KOC how to diagnose it – Microscopically , the lining epithelium is thin and Parakeratinzed , basal layer is palisaded with prominant staining nuclei ,, the lumen cintain large amount of KERATIN debris and clear fluid similar to serum transudate( dd)

Dentigerous cyst (radio and patio) – Impacted / unerupted – radiolucency > 5mm upto cej – Cyst is lined by epithelial cells derived from reduced enamel epithelium

Why to extract bone impacted 3 molar – caries, recurrent pericoronitis, improper eruption path, resorption of agjacent

Modeling reshaping behavior – successive approximation – Behavior shaping a.k.a. successive approximation shaping is used when an existing behavior needs to be changed into a more appropriate or new behavior. The strategy involves use of reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired

Cross section study – No cause and effect

Bundling/unbundling – Bundling pay all procedure together – Unbundling separate charging.

MOA of sulfas – If its sulfanylurra then stimulate insulin from b cell of pancrease (Stimulate beta cell to inc insulin) – If its sulfonamide then ab compete with gaba and inhibit folic acid syng

Epi should be avoided in excess of: thyroid hormone, Yes because it causes hypertensive crisis with Grave’s disease

43. Max dose of LA for 3 years old with 16 kg – 70.4

Changing the exposure time and how will change MA with the others factors remaining the same – (For example: ma :10 in 1 sec – If exposure time changed to .5 seconds thn MA will be 20 or 5 ??

Hardest type of ceramic: Zirconia (From weak to hardest: feldespathic, leucite- reinforced, lithium disilicate, glass-filled, aluminia, zirconia)

Why Zirconia is one of the hardest ceramic? – Due to its sintering technique — slip cast technique which increases toughness

Diffencial diagnosis of perio endo lesions – vital pulp test (ept)

Order of treatment in case of perio – Emergency, Control, Reevaluation, Maintenance

The most important factor in choosing color for a crown – Value

Finish line of gold crown – in dd ideally its feather edge , but chamfer is

51. Finish line of PFM – All CERAMIC shoulder, GOLD chamfer, PFM buccal shoulder and lingual chamfer.. but if not given.. chamfer considered.


# of bur used with gold onlay – 557

What not to use for pm (# of forceps) – 23 cowhore

Safe analgesic to use in pregnant patient (acetaminophen not an option) Tylenol 3

Class 2 narcotics – Percocet

Medication use in Parkinson’s – Levadopa, carbidopa, Amantidine

Alcohol addiction and use of Tylenol – Liver toxicity, so it must be avoided

Regional odontodysplasia – Ghost tooth, short roots , open apical foramin, enlarged pulp chamber, the thinness and poor mineralization quality of enamel give it the gost shape tooth, affect permenant more than primary, max anterior is more affected

Sjogren syndrome – Dry eye(xerohthamia), Dry mouth xerostomia, Rheumatoid arthritis

Meds in miastenia gravis – Neostigmine + atropine y pyridostigmine. Endrosphonium to diagnoses Myastenia Gravis, not for treatmrnt because of short duration

Side effect of albuterol – Canidida and xerostomia (Dryness of mouth inc susceptabilty to candidal infection)

Side effect of nitroglycerine: Orthostatic hypotension, Headache, Nausea, Flushing of face

How does the insurance make money-1-pay per case 2-Barter, HMO,

There are only mandibular anterior in the mouth and planned was the CD… what do u look for?1-Balanced occlusion 2-Canine guidance

Maxillary molar thin attached gingiva what you do not do on the distal-FGG, Apically PF, Distal wedge (Apically displaced flap is done in adequate attached gingiva)

Nitrous oxide mechanism of action – It works on central nervus system( reticular activating system ans limbic ) its sympathomimetic, the only inorganic used , weak anesthetic and strong analgesic , used in conscios sedation ( stage one anesthsia


Dens in dente most common involved tooth – LI

Most common anomaly-DI, AI DI–1 in 7000

Worst possible outcome after splinting the avulsed tooth-Inflammatory resorption , Replacement resorption – external root resorption( inflammatry)

Down syndrome what do u see-enlargement of maxilla, mandible, Mid-face def

Biological width from where to where – Junctional epithelial + T = 2.04

Menarche- skeletal maturation, cognizant maturation, emotional maturation

Characteristic of arrested caries-they did not mention anything about colour but came up with soft under enlarged gingiva, gingival recession.

Epinephrine what it does, Prolong the duration of LA, vasoconstriction

75. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of NSIAD – Lipooxygenase and cyclo oxygenase inhibition pathways – nsaid dont ecffect neither intrinsic nor extrincic pathway of coagulation,,, it inhibit platalet aggregation by inhibiting thromboxane A2

Main disadvantage of GP cones: Does not adapt so requires Zoe

Asymptomatic pigmented lesion on the palate 4mmx3mm what you will do for it ? A) cone beam and excisional biobsy b) cone beam and excisional and antiobiotic treatment C) no

Whats the heart rate for a child 3 years I believe – 110

The most chronic peridontistis will be found on – black males

SNA, SNB, ANB- related 82-80-2 – SNA mx to cranium 82 normal More mx protruded Less mx retruded – Snb mn to cranium 80 normal More mn prot Less mn retr – ANB mx to mn 2-4 More class 2 Less than 2 three

Primary tooth intrusion what u do- Observe


Rct contra – Leukemia , uncontroll DM , recent mi

Patient stand on the corner looking at the floor and his hand is folded together after you give him and introducation what you ask him or do next – What bring u here today

Xylitol can be most effective in reducing caries by – Increasing salivary flow, inhibiting formation of bacteria

If you have 2 proximal cavities how to manage? Prepare larger first, fill smaller first

Epilepsy which drug, grandma and petit – Phenytoin, Peti is exothusmide – grand mal- phenytoin

Germination,fusion ,attrition,erosion what are they know definition

Pregnancy safe drug – Promathzine, Tylenol 3 (Amoxylin, Aceta, Tylenol 3, Promethazin)

epi +proponolol what will happen? Hypertensive crisis – Increase BP accompanied by reflex bradycardia

Xray to identify zygomatic arch – Smv and CT

91. Myxoma: honey comb, most common odontogenic mesenchymal tumor, Benign mesenchymal tumor. Hony comb appearance and tennis racket. May show sun ray app of osteosarcoms. Cz displacement but not resorption of roots, arise from follicular connective tissue resembling dental pulp tissue. Odontogenic myxoma (bromyxoma).

Uncommon to rare tumor of myxomatous connec- tive tissue (primitive-appearing connective tissue containing little collagen similar to dental pulp). Either jaw affected. Radiolucency, often with small loculations (honey- comb pattern). Treated with surgical excision; moderate recurrence potential owing to lack of encapsulation and tumor

92. Ameloblastoma, Benign, Most common epithe tumor, Soap buble with local invasion, Mn post.

Pagets, Max affect more, Hyoercementosis , Cotton wool appearance, Mx, Cotton wool, Inc alkphosphotase, Osteosarcoma, Cotton wool, Hypercementosis and loss of lamina Tendency to malignancy osteosarcoma.

Gingivectomy incision – External bevel

Intracanal medicament – Caoh


About ageing of amalgam what happens – Inc marginal seal

Difference betn reversible and irreversible

Most common in school going – Marginal gingivitis

What is diff betn infected and affected – Infected we have to remove and not remenerilze.

Which force for implant – horizontal is worse

Some q about sinus lift – Bone graft at the floor of sinus for implant

103. FN plane – Porion orbitale (Porion to orbitale Frankfort plane)

Bestxray for mesio dense – Occlusal

105. Porcelian fracture – Porosity in porcelain is result from inadequte condensation card 29 pros) ,,, porcelain fracture in pfm , is poor design is main coz of fracture (dd)

Nitous oxide contra – Nasal congestion, 1st tri, Head injury, Mental retar, COPD

.1st primary erupt at 6 to7 MNTHS

Most impacted tooth – Lower3rd

Paresthesia which fracture? Angle

100% Humidity of alginate – Irrevesible, Synersis

About informed consent what it doesnot contain – COST


Max anterior common perforation where? – Mesial

Drugs for xerostomia – Pilocarpine cevimeline

Treatment of xerostomia – stop medication or modify them use of saliva subistitute or use of hard candy sugar free

Atropine – Cause xerostomia, Anticholenrgic

Cholinergic – Inc secretion, Miosis, Reduce bp, Inc gastric motility

Antichoinergic – Atropine, glycopyrrate, propanthaline, scopalmine

Antidepressant – Tca, Moa inhibiters

Read about gracy and universal curette, also about specificity ,sensitivity calculation.

Collimination function – Reduce x ray exposure, lead

Whitexray pics cause – Not enough developing

Chin up pic – Reverse smile – frown

Implant q one is temp – 47- less than 1 mint

Other was about antirotational element – Hex either external or internal

About hue, Color, Index100, Hue selected first

What u select 1st hue chorma value? HUE

What you cant change hue chorma value

h2 blocker ranitidine – TRUE

Sulfynoyl urea moa – Stimulate insulin by acting on beta cell

Moa of sodium hypochlorite, .5.25% ,removes organic debris, antimicrobial

Sodium hypochlorite is not chelating – T

Most radioresistance – Muscle and nerve

Verrucose leukoplakia-site – Buccal mucosa

134. Terfenadine — erythro contraindicated (T…Terfenamide (sedane) c.i for erythromycin)


Ana Karina Perez RQs


Patient hip prosthesis with a strok a year ago you give prophylaxis or call to the doctor

– No need to prophylaxy in both situation

First symptom of Adrenal gland dysfunction? joint pain and pigmentation

Sialolith in which gland? – submandibular

Erythroplakia (erythroplasia) High-risk, idiopathic red patch of mucosa. 2. Most represent dysplasia or malignancy. 3. Biopsy mandatory. Much less common than idiopathic leukoplakia. Cause unknown (idiopathic), some are tobacco related Usually occurs between 50 and 70 years old. High-risk sites: floor of mouth, tongue, retromolar area. Microscopy: Mild to moderate dysplasia (10%) Severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (40%) Squamous cell carcinoma (50%)

Multiple myel. resemble to? idiopathic histiocytosis, both have punched out appreance

6. Neuropraxia? Neuropraxia is a type of peripheral nerve injury, and is known as the mildest form of nerve injury. It is classified as a transient conduction block of motor or sensory function without nerve degeneration, although loss of motor function is the most common finding.

Advantage of auto cure composite – No light needed

What happen when you move when take a pano – Distortion due to patient movement: Movement in the same direction as the beam. There is prolonged exposure of the same area, with increase in horizontal dimension of the image. b. Movement in the opposite direction as the beam. The horizontal dimension of the image in the region is decreased. (In the option was distortion below and too I think is below)

Dif between luz led and halogen – No heat – no fan – so light weight, requires less power- so battery – so No retinal damage

Open coil between two teeth how is the force: Continuous or intermittent – coil give continius force not decrese like elastic … coil still active all time

11. Concusion – No treatment. Tooth is neither displaced nor loose but respond to percussion

Best cement for veneer – resin cements (light cure)

Men with 54 years old with post cross bite best tto: expansion with appliance, surgery or do nothing – Surgery its same q in first aid

Complex odontoma and compound odontoma – Compound—ant Complex—post

I had a question of ginkgo biloa – Anticoagulant, Not given with aspirin and warfarine, and used as periphral artery

Demensia i had 2 q about this – Alzheimer’s- short term memory loss – dementia

17. Patient inject local anesthesia iv what happen – Cns excitation, 1st sign of lydo toxicity: ligtheadedness, dizziness, visual and auditory disturbances, disorientation, muscle twiching, convulsions. 1st sign from epineprine: elevated pulse rate (symphatomimetic) followed by CNS depression.

Limit amount of exposure more in which? digital imaging

Function of conector major: Stability and rigidity

Patient white 50 years old have little caries what do you put: flúor, composic, glass ionome

Newly erupted tooth ehat tests for vitality – Cold


If the patient had good behavior before what do you do: tell show do or give a gift – Positive reinforcement

What is your name when you attend a nervous patient and compare it with the good behavior of the patient who are attend it – I think the q meant about modeling (observational learning )

Común tooth with caries – Mand 1 molar

Común tooth with fracture – Mand 1 molar

Común tooth with periodontist – Max second molar

Reduction of porcelain – 2 mm for both metal and porcelain .5 mm for metal and 1 to

1.5 for porcelain

Interaction of amoxicilin with methotrexate – Yes, prolong the action of methotrexate

Tto of acute manic episode – Lithium

30. Tto for recession – Lateral repositioned flap (pedicle graft) in small recession area, for large recession area I think we do free gingival graft

Phonetic problem associated with f, v – Ant Teeth place too far anteriorly and superior

Which test is used to differentiate between endo and perio lesion – Both vitality and percussion test, ept (dd 2 cards mention that)

Which is worse to lose the first molar inf or a second molar in inf – Second molar

Most rigid impression material – Polyether

Highest chance of pulp necrosis – avulsion

Advantage of compound impression – Good detail

What can we use for sedation for a pregnant breat feeding woman – Promathazine

How Do you do better cleaning with ultrasonic with a thin point or more vibration –

Moooore vibration

Tto to ranula – Marsupilization, Excision along with gland as per new dd

Which gland ranula – Sublingual

Tto to sialolith – Conservative tt is saliva stimulants or for larger surgical

Which study doesn’t show cause and effect – Crosssectional (case control shows cause and .cross sectional doesn’t)

To what space go the tooth of 3 molar inf when yo found extraction – Retro pharyngeal

Pka has effect on what – Onset, onset, with low pka will have faster onset of action

Multiple odontoma in which syndrome – Gardner syn

Patient with bizarre behavior and disorientation you give what – Glucose

47. Tto to ADHD – amphetamine was in the option (amphetamine was in the option)

What do you do in a patient with autism – Use muffler on handpiece to reduce sound, give instructions one at a time, slowly – patient is Noise

What cyst in roots of mandibular premolar – Lateral periodontal cyst

What is the complication of maxillary molar extractions – Sinus perforation

What is easily curable ; hematoma or macule ?

Nadal obstruction what sedation you can’t give – Nitrous oxide

Tto concusion – no need

Features of arrested caries – hard, eburnated , black brown

Lefort 3 – Separation from cranial base

Which surgery for open bite – Lefort 1

Serpentile feature – migratory glossitis

Which study FDA do to check drugs – Clinical trial


Patient said I don’t wanna smoking , behavior shaping – Contemplation , when patient is ready to change negative behavior (smoking) , precontemplation when individual is not considering in changing this behavior

Cleft lip and palate at what month – As average for both, 6-8wks

Bucal limitation in mand denture – Masseter (buccal vestibule is buccinator and distobuccal is masseter)

Ideal test for kidney function – Protein creatinine ratio and blood urea nitrogen

Reversal acetilcolina – Physostigmine

Nerve affected when there is a damage on the uvula – option cnV, VII, IX, X, XII (vagus)

Ancillary freckling seen in – Nurofibromatosis

Radiographic is too light why – Underdeveloped, depleted delevoper,temp too cool

3 mm lack of mand arch how you treat – Interdental striping

Smokeless tabacco cause what – Verrucous carcinoma

Lefort 1 include what structure – Pterygoid maxillary, Palate- greater palatine artery ecchymosis – guerins sign

70. Lefort 3 include what structure – Complete separation of midface at level Naso- orbital-ethmoid complex and zygomaticofrontal suture area. Fracture extends through orbits bilaterally.

Anug resemble what – Primary herptic gingivostomatitis

When do you do elective rct – Not enough crown structure

What % in community water fluoridation: 0,7-1,2 or 0,5 -1

Best bone for implant – D1 – mand anterior

Fearful patient how you do respond

There is a small white stain: amelogesesis imperfecta, for flour , dentinogenesis imperfect – Enamel hypoplasia

A little Pigment on the gingiva if for melanin, smoking a lot of question on day 2 of pigmentation and xerostomia

Patient of class 2 div 2 – picture

Picture of osteosarcoma – Sun ray pattern

Reversal benzodiazepines – Flumenazil

A lot question about flap don’t remember the question

Hypides in pano

Best rx for interproximal caries – Bitewing , and digital is best

Q about protein morphogenetic – BMP- present in auto genous grafts – has progenitor cells — help in forming new bone

Most común seizure: gran mal or febrile – Grand mal, febrile for kids

Which antibiotic work on gingiva? azithromycin

automated defibrilator, how does it work? a- monophase function b-2 shocks c- contraindicated below 12 year old d- discharge when needed

which bacteria causes elastenase, collagenase? gingivalis

15 year old has fever, malaise, vesicles, lymphadenopathy? acute herpetic gingivostomatis

Necrotisizing sialometaplasia – Most common in palate, Resembles scc, usually occurs due to anesthesia with adrenaline, Minor salivary gland

Porosity in pfm?

Cancer of salivary glands and which one has perineurial invasion – adenoid cystic ca- swiss cheese; perineural invasion – Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon


form of malignant neoplasm that arises within secretory glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck.

Fracture also with paresthesia / angle of mandible, BODY

Xesrostomia and normal flow rate

osteoradionecorosis/hyperbaric oxygen

Lateral periodontal abscess is best differentiated from the acute apical abscess by =

pulp test

What will not regenerate after rct = dentin formation

3 partner dentist and hygienist hurts patient who involved in a low suit = only dentist supervising dentist and hygienist

How long after extraction you insert the complete denture = 8 weeks

Which one is more affect in male = hemophilia

Where does the epithelial for a graft come from = donor connective tissue

Macroglossia not found in: A)hypothyroidism B)hyperparathiroidism*

Radiographic image of (painless lesion, bone expansion) A)fibrous displasia (there was ground glass appearance to identify)*

Most supernumerary located in the: ant *

Cleidocraniodysplasia – supernumerary*

Plasma cell disorders multiple myeloma*

Which situation least require insulin A)trauma*

Herpangina – enterovirus* (coxsackie A)

Material least resistant – high leucite*

Which anethetic without vasoconstrictor is best to use – mepivacaine*

Do not use in myasthenia gravis A)erythromicine B)peniciline C) imipinem*

Broadest spectrum antibiotics – pen g procaine*

most common found A)odontoma*

Smoothest cutting but not efficient: carbide bur

Nitrous oxide side effect: nausea

Pt with many sinus fistula: actinomycosis

Wheezing during expiration: asthma

Where do u prefer GA? Ext of 2 yrs old

Pt came with What u will do first? Incision and drainage

Anterior guidance: both horizontal and vertical

Wear facet in primary dentition why? Don’t remember options (one was habit)

Garre osteomyelitis- onion skin

Chronic osteomyelitis- moth eaten

Scleroderma- purse string mouth + extrusing teeth

125. Von recklinghausen- Cafe au lait spots; lisch spots on iris; crowe sign= axillary freckles

Fibrous dysplasia- ground glass

Pagets dis- cotton wool

128. Cherubism- bilateral; soap bubble ; perivascular cuffing

Multiple myeloma- punched out

How many percent have access to fl community water? 80 is the ans

131. MOA of sulfanamid – inhibit PABA required for folic acid synthesis – inhibit folic acid synthesis by inhibiting dyhydrofolate reductase by competeting with PABA

MAO of sulfonylurea – Stimulates insulin production from beta cells and increase sensitivity to insulin


Which one is class 2? Percocet is the ans

INR – extrinsic pathway ans

Which is correct about conjugation? adding a molecule to the drug ans

Which of these cognitive behavior decrease in a normal process of aging? learning I think is answ

Today’s Rq’s

What happens when you change from 8’’ to 16’’? 4 times

Stages of AIDS and no. of Leukocyte count.

Treacher Collin Syndrome – Treacher Collins syndrome, autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutation of TCOF1. Coloboma is part of a set of characteristic facies that features craniofacial malformations, such as downslanting eyes, ear anomalies, or hypoplasia of zigomatic bone and jaw (micrognathia). Defect in all 1st pharyngeal pouch derivatives, Malformed ear, mandibular hypoplasia, hypoplasia zygomatic

4. Ectodermal dysplasia – Lack of sweat glands, oligodontia or anodontia, concave nasal bridge. X-linked recessive condition that

results in partial or complete anodontia. 2. Patients also have hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, including hair, sweat glands, and nails.

What is the key factor for a denture to be successful? fabrication design, stability

4 yrs old child – fluoride supplement? 25 mg if water fluoride concentration is 0.3-0.6ppm and 0.50mg if water fluoride concentration is less than 0.3ppm

Infection stage of syphilis? – Secondary stage

Optimum treatment for palatal papillary hyperplasia? a) Radical dissection

b) Electrosurgery


3 canals- which premolar? 1st PM max

Triangular canal central incisor- why? To expose pulp horns

Angles Class II- chances of trauma the most – True class II div 1

Most broad spectrum antibiotic? Tetracycline and chloramphenicol

Angioedema not caused by which drug? Ace inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, nsaids, penicillins and quinolones CAUSE angioedema. So the answer would be any other than these classes

Dens in dente: Mostly in maxillary laterals

SLOB rule – Same lingual, Opposite buccal

Most difficult to floss where? Mesial aspect of max PM1

Dental clicking- increased VDO, also if porcelain teeth are used in

Function of rest. – provide vertical support for RPD and resist vertical forces for occlusion

Question on function of axial guidance – Axial guidance can be done using guiding planes in the surveyor used for single path of insertion

Horizontal axis of – rotation movement of mandible

As teeth ages, what increases? Hue / chroma – Hue unchanged, chroma increases and value

Patient wakes up in the morning with sore pain in muscles? Bruxism/Sinusitis

Difference between 245 and 330 – Length of them 245=3mm / 330=1.5mm – 245 is longer

Prostaglandin analogue? Lantanoprost, treatment for glaucoma

Aspirin and Yinseng? What happens if given together – no, bleeding induces

Filtration used in X-ray machines – Lead is used for “collimation”. Aluminium for “filtration”

27. Thompton effect? It must be Compton effect which is increase in wavelength of x rays or gamma rays.

Flouride water level? 7-1.2ppm

Inner and outer line angles.

Angioedema – Acquired angioedema is a specific type of allergic reaction. a. Precipitated by drugs or food (shell sh, nuts). b. Mediated by mast cell release of c. Results in characteristic soft, diffuse swelling of lips, neck, or face. d.Hereditary angioedema is a rare form that is an autosomal dominant trait. Acquired angioedema is a rapidly developing allergic reaction that results in characteristic nonerythematous swelling of lips, face, and neck.

31. Diphenhydramine- anti motion sicknes, Benedryl even given when pt is allergic to both amide and esters, Anti histamine , anti cholinergic , sedation

Difference between snuff dipper and nicotina stomatitis – nicotinic stomatitis lesion seen on palate due to Snuf dipper lesion seen on buccal side and it is mainly due to smokeless tobacco. Snuff— dysplastic , premalignant Nicotinic — non malignant

sitting with folded arms and legs shaking. What do you say to him? What brought you here

Most commom reason for pt. to have a negative attitude for dental treatment.a) Own dental experience b) Heard from peer/friends

Clinical test for Rheumatoid arthritis? Clinical test – watch toes and fingers – they become crooked — something like that — skeletal

Sjogrens syndrome is associated with? Lymphoma? True


Reasons for eruption – Ankylosis,primary eruption failure, impaction, down syndrome etc

Critical pH for demineralization of dentin? 5 (enamel 5.5- dentin 6.2)

Situtaions for temporary – incomplete root.,,deep caries approaching pulp

Reciprocal – Elastics to close diastema

Diabetes in children can lead to? Blindness

P. 160/140. Pulse 90. What do you do? Repeat after 15 mins/ call the physician immediately

What happens when you increase water in gypsum. – Decrease strength increase setting time, decrease expansion increase

44. LAP t/t: Tetracycline 250mg thrice for 14 days —- severe cases— metronidazole and penicillin, Sc/Rp and antibiotics

Area of least attached gingival? Which tooth – Mand 1st pm

How to check clinically for the prognosis of PDL – Probing

with alcohol abuse? What to check in lab report before extraction? Blood alcohol level – INR

Pain on eating sweet- reversible pulpitis

Ossifying fibroma – Ossifying fibroma. 1. Common fibro-osseous lesion. Can be considered similar or identical to cementifying broma, although some may reach considerable size. Clinical features. Radiographically appears as either a well- circumscribed lucency or a lucency with opaque foci. Seen in adults and young adults, typically in the body of the mandible. A variant known as juvenile ossifying fibroma occurs in younger patients and may exhibit an aggressive course. Microscopically composed of fibroblastic stroma in which new bony islands or trabeculae are formed. 5. Treatment—curettage or excision; recurrences rare.

Pt receive blow to eye orbital floor less common t/f

In Facebow transfers relation of arches? – In centric

Epinephrine action on which receptor in epinephrine reversal? Epinephrine has effect on both alpha and beta…..but epinephrine reversal is due to beta receptor stimulation. – Epinephrine action on Beta receptor in presence of alpha blocker causes Epinephrine reversa

Initiator in heat cured resin – light cured = diketone photoinitiator (camphoroquinone), self-cure = benzoyl

Cause of brown discoloration of gingival margin of resin restoration – microleakage

Skewed distribution – Negative and . bimodal distribution

56. Cimentidine function – Cimetidine is a drug that blocks the production of acid by acid-producing cells in the stomach.

Topical antibiotic in perio – doxicicline

Child with multiple caries – give GA

Least congenital missing tooth – Max canine

Gingseng contra with aspirin

Major connector function: rigidity nd stability

incisal position during record – Midline of incisal part of upper incisors

First pass metabolism – Enterohepatic circulation (ORAL DRUGS)

Other rq Polymerization shrinkage In composite depends upon? Adhesive bond Filler content Elastic modulus All – DD: Fillers are placed in dental composites to reduce shrinkage on


Pulpitis 5 days after class ll composite is due to – Increase occlusal contact

Microleakage Undercured composite

Which sound during wax try in – Sibilant – s and z

Least occurrence cyst – Lateral Periodontal Cyst

young female pt with vital tooth canine features with AOT

Ortho tipping before of veneering before? – before

Most imp feature of single implant – Antirotational

Drug bio- transformation – Excretion of .by passing through

White rough peduncalted lesion on palate? papilloma or fibroma

Primary and secondary stress bearing areas in maxilla – Primary – Residual alveolar ridge, Secondary – Rugae

Primary and secondary stress bearing areas in mandible – Primary Buccal shelf, Secondary – residual alveolar ridge

Best area for successful implant – ant mandible

Reason for image distortion

Reason for light radiograph – Low Kvp, Ma and exhausted developer and overfixing

78. Pedicle graft – excellent esthetic, less chance of failure, good vascularization and single recision.

Epi of free gingival graft – Donor epith

Gingivectomy indication – Gingival hyperplasia.. abnormal growth.. pseudopockets present, SUPRABONY

Gingivectomy contraindication – Infrabony defect

Clotrimazole which form torche

Topical antifungal – Nystatin and clotrimazole

Dentist did wrong treatment and didnt tell pt … whats that term – violating Verasity

Disc movement first it moves 25 mm click is hear than 5 so what side it goes in 5 mm – Ant to normal

Tooth size and morphology in which stage of tooth development – Bells stage

Mandibular denture position in relation to tongue – Below

88. Unbunding – dentist seperating treatment charges which actually can be counted as single procedure.

Lateral surface of tongue asymptomatic blue lesion in old pt since 5 yrs hemangioma or varicosities (because of age)

Lactating mother sedation drug – Promethazine

Fever in children drug of choice – Tylenol, acetaminophen

Nephrotoxicity by which drug – Aminoglycoside

Reduced insulin dose in what – IV sedation

Wheel chair transfer – Sliding

Desquamative gingivitis – in pemphigoid , pemphigus, and lichen planus also

Antibiotic and surgery is treatment for what lap or anug? Antibiotic-lap, Surgery- ANUG

Herpes peak age – 2-5 years

Difference between affected and infected dentin – infected always need to be removed.

Movement for recording buccal frenal area of mandible – Upward and outward

Opioid allergy – IRRITATION, Itching, flushing, hives and dec bp

Pain killer in renal disease – Oxycodone

Cocaine – mydraisis


BDZ antagonist – Flumazenil

Neurofibromatosis – Cafe au lauts spots, axillary freckling and lisch nodules

Direct retainer uses?


TANYA’s RQs (September 20, 2017)

Two questions about mandibular plane angle

Mandibular plane angle in class 3- steep or flat (cl3 flat cl2 steep)

A steep mandibular plane angle predisponate a person to — and a flat mandibular plane angle predisponate a person to —? long face, short face

Class 2 malocclusion A- increase mandibular plane angle B- decrease mandibular plane angle

Which of the following correlate with a steep mandibular plane? Select all that apply

Long ant facial vertical dimension 2.greater maxillary- mandibular plane angle

Ant open bite 4. All

Anterior incisal guide table

Reason for Incisive guide table?. Anterior guidance

Purpose of incisal guidance, mount .? adjust condylar guidance .. begin prep

Least strength of ceramic crowns – options – pressed leucite ceramic (strong porcelain is glass infiltrated )

Most important cause of ceramic crown fracture is due to – options were all lab procedures like firing, condensation – Inadequate framework/insufficient reduction of tooth, Yes low temperature in degassing, will affect the bond and more prone to fracture card 141 pros. Insufficient temperature or insufficient time

Floss and brushing dexterity

Patient has problem with manual dexterity what will he have problem with?

A) floss B) Brushing C) both – why not both?? because the pt can use an electric toothbrush

Perforation of root canal which is difficult 3mm apical to gingival sulcus (CORONAL THIRD), 3mm coronal to gingival sulcus, apical 3rd,middle 3rd?

Behavior studies by which author? Freud – Freud theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious conscious

Few questions about anxiety

Pt try to hide fear and anxiety, what we look for to understand it: Micro expression

More difficult to handle: Fear – Anxiety

Elderly person physically abused whom should u report? Human Health services

Kid abuse whom should u report? Social service – In pt management of dental decks, it says it depends by the state – “Once abuse is suspected against a child, elderly, or disabled pt, it must be reported to the appropriate agency (of the state)

Border molding impression compound and one question was about its thermoplastic property.

What is the primary indicator of accuracy of a border molding on a custom impression tray? stability, retention – Satbility and lack of displacement in card 1 pros , so i think both if in one option

Ability of impression compound to be adjusted due to which property? Thermoplastic

Polyether imp comp – sticks to teeth


Which of the following imp material will distorts the least when it store for 24 hrs before puring: silicon imp material, polyether imp material – pVS/ Silicon, its most dimensionaly

Cheek biting in complete denture caused by – Absence of buccal horizontal overlap

Null hypothesis – Null hypothesis tested in chi test – T

P value in null hypothesis above 5 means is: statistical insignificant case control study

– If the observed probability is less than or equal to .05 (5%), the null hypothesis is rejected (i.e., the observed outcome is judged to be incompatible with the notion of “no difference” or “no effect”), and the alternative hypothesis is adopted. In this case, the results are said to be “statistically significant.” If the observed probability is greater than 0.05 (5%), the decision is to accept the null hypothesis, and the results are called “not statistically significant” or simply NS—the notation o en used in tables.

Purpose of statistical tests in clinical trials is: A) to establish validity B) to find alpha value

C) to reject null hypothesis D) to test specificity of experiment

Randomised control trial

Which if the following has problem in recall bias:- a. Cohort study b. Cross sectional study Randomised control study d. Case control study

WHich case study used in rare(Odd) disease investigation?? Case cOntrOl

Apically positioned flap

The most predictable for treatment of perio disease?1. Scaling & root planing

The modified Widman flap 3. Free gingival flap 4. Apically positioned flap

Whats the problem if you wanna perform apically positioned flap surgery in th mand second and third molar? external obligue bridge

Curette angulation

If correct angulation is present when working with a universal curette then …? the lower shank is parallel to the tooth surface

Three q’s about perio maintanence therapy steps and prognosis was so confusing


Antibiotic for ANUG ? Pencillin V (DD)

ANUG mouth rinse? Chlorohexiden, Hydrogen peroxide (DD)

Anug is usually accompanied by metallic ..T or F

Squamous cellular carcinoma initial lesion picture

Pierre robin syndrome features

Patients with pierre-robin syndrome will have? mandibular retrogranthia – cleft palate, mandiblar retrognathia ,glossoptosis

Pierre Robin syndrome is associated with 1. Glossoptosis 2. Cleft palate 3. Respiratory problems all of the above 5. A and B

Which disease does not cause cancer: HIV, HPV, I don’t remember the other options

Allergy a lidocaine anesthetic

Which pair of anesthetics is most likely to cause cross allergy? 1. Lidocaine and mepivocaine = T


With age what increase hue value chroma!! – Chroma increases, value dec and hue unchang


What should be selected first when picking a shade? hue (DD) – First pick HUE and VALUE is considered THE MOST IMPORT in shade selection.



Erosion due to acidic foods and drinks is usually found on the cervical portion of the tooth – facial

Facial portions = 3 VER-TI-CAL, 5 HORIZONTAL

Free space

Free way space? 2 – 3 mm

Free way space when at physical rest T/F

Open bite or increased free way space = decreased bitting force T/F


When do you check phonetics for a CD? Wax try in, Tooth try in – DD#20 PROST

During try-in of CD, which phonetics is used: Labio-dental, Linguo-dental, Linguo- alveolar, B m p sounds

Radioresistant cells – NERVE, MUSCLE

Radiosensitive cells – Bone marrow lymphocytes, basal epithelial, small lymphocyte

Which are the most radiosensitive cells in the human body? Basal epithelial cell, Endothelial cell, Salivary gland acinar cell, Nerve cell, Erythrocyte

Radiographic errors

Most important characteristic for choosing major connector- Stability & rigidity

Histogram shows- Variance – It is an estimate of the probability distribution of a continuous variable (quantitative variable)

Hazard communication standard was prepared by- OSHA

Pedal edema, dyspnea, orthopnea are signs of- CHF

A dentist cannot do what to correct the small discrepancies- manipulate the cement- water ratio.

Dexterity comes by what age? 6-8, mean 7yrs

Dexterity comes by what age? 3-4 years B.1-2 years C.5-6 years D.7-8 years

Most common complication of N2O – bronchospasm was what I marked (nausea, vomiting and peripheral neuropathy was not in option)

Most complication of nitrous oxide: vomiting, behavioral problem, (nausea was not an option) – DD: the most common complication associated with nitrous oxide sedation is a behavioral problem (laughing, giddy). Most common adverse effect: nausea and Headache and disorientation can be avoided by administrating 100% oxygen after nitrous oxide has been discontinued.

Best bone for implant- d1, d2, d3, d4

Question on sensitivity, specificity, (definition)

A diagnostic test that correctly identifies 20% of screened patients as being dx free has low: Sensitivity, Specificity, Precision – sensitivity is defined as the percent of persons with the disease who are correctly classified as having the disease (those who have the disease). Specificity is defined as the percent of persons without the disease who are correctly classified as not having the disease (those who do not have the disease).

What does identify persons with the disease? Sensitivity, Specificity

What causes varices on the tongue? Age

Lady presents with blue swelling under tongue? I put ranula

Picture said: “erythematous, bleeding swelling” mandibular swelling right next to premolars on R side? I put pyogenic granuloma – T

Patient with diabetes which finding is not consistent? increase collagenase in crevicular fluid, increase glucose in crevicular fluid, increase gram negative in


crevicular fluid, decrease in thickness of basilar lamina of blood vessels in periodontium.

Most common reason for failure of dental amalgam? moisture contamination, improper prep design- not enough depth, improper titrutration, improper condensation – In card 7 operative said most coz failure is moisture, and improper preparation and not enough depth is reason o fracture, card 120 oprative


Pt has cranial dysostosis, midface deficiency, hypertelorism and beaten metal appearnce? Crouzons b. Treacher Collins

Automatic defibrillator

Automated defibrillator expander is used in: cardiac arrest, both kids and

Papoose Board

8 years old parent with negative behavior, you use for immobilize extremities: Papoose board

Most convergence in which primary tooth – mandibular 1st molar

Least antiplatelet NSAID – celecoxib

4 to 5 questions on implant you should know all implant distance – Distal between 2 implants 3 mm, From IAN 2 mm, From mental 5 mm, Tooth and implants 5

A lot about endodontics some were very basic questions

Plaque ph – so least than 5

Distolingual what is the best filling material – amalgam (DD)

Conical shape what caries?

The conical shape of pits and fissures caries shows: A. Two triangles pointing toward the pulp B. Two triangles pointing toward the occlusal surface Two triangles with their bases on the DEJ D. Two triangles with their apices on the DEJ


Which will show up on transillumination best? Craze line

Cracked tooth

Patient comes back few months after RCT & Crown with pain upon biting, what ..cracked tooth

Crack tooth syndrome is most likely found? Mandibular 1st molar

Neuropraxia: This type of injury is characterized by a segmental block of the conduction of the nerve action potential caused by structural damage to the myelin sheath. The axon and connective tissues including endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium are not

Neuropraxia: involves both perineurium and epineurium, only perineurium, only epineurium, none of the above

Neuropraxia reversible or irreversible? Reversible

Which salivary gland tumors is associated with neuropraxia (nerve damage): A.Mucoepidemoid carcinoma adenoid cystic carcinoma(ACC) C.Acinic cell carcinoma – adenoid cystic ca has tendency to invade surrounding nerve fibers– perineural invasion

Which of the following glucocorticoids is the strongest? Dexa, Corticoid, Hydrocortisone

Disinfectant for dental chair (min) cavicide?

Le fort 1 fracture à Maxillary sinus


Maxillary sinus fracture mostly with: Le fort I

Collimation does everything except –reduce pt exposure, reduce operator exposure, film fog, reduce average energy of x-rays

The Dentist completes exam and advises x-rays but the pt refuses. What should the dentist immediately do? When a patient refuses to have dental radiographs, the dentist must decide whether diagnosis and treatment can take place without the recommended No document can be signed by the patient that releases the dentist from liability.

What is true of

Damage to the blood vessels as oppose to (nerve, muscles) predisposes a patient to develop true or false

Osteoradionecrosis can be differentiated from osteomyelitis as:

Osteoradionecrosis show periosteal reaction

b. Osteoradionecrosis does not show periosteal reaction

Cannot be differentiated on basis of periosteal reaction as both show it

Cannot be differentiated on basis of periosteal reaction, as both do not show

X-ray identification: – Median Palatal Suture, Zygomatic process of maxilla, Dorsal Surface of tongue, Odontoma – RL, RO, RL, RO

The severity of response increases with the amount of X-ray This effect is called. Deterministic, Stochastic, Genetic

Most common recurrent cyst : okc

xray for annuerysm cyst – CT or MRI

Secondary herpes site – Genitals is HSV 2 for HSV 1 its lips

Concentration of apf flouride gel – 23% – Since the early 1960s, acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) has become the most widely used fluoride compound for professional application. APF has a pH of about 3.0 and was developed after experimental work showed that the topical uptake of fluoride by enamel was greater in an acidic environment. The agent has been tested in several concentrations, the most common being 1.23% fluoride, usually as NaF, in orthophosphoric acid.

Orange stain is important to change chroma or hue? hue

Cleft palate prevalence: Palate 1:2000 – The incidence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate occurs in 1 in 700 – 1000 births (DD), together 1:700 (most prevalence)

Retained primary teeth is characteristic for both cleidocranial dysplasia and ectodermal dysplasia – T/F

Multiple supernumerary teeth are most commonly found in A. cherubism. B. cretinism. hypothyroidism. D. cleidocranial dysplasia

Cleidocranial dysplasia = supernumeraries

Hypothyroidism clinical signs – Cold to touch, thinning of hair, delayed eruption of permanent

Acromegaly clinical signs – Mand prognathism

What is called when u do not take patient consent ?? assault , nonmaleffi, battery

Which bur is used for the crown cutting? 169

Which forceps is used for mandibular premolar extraction?? 151

Behcets syndrome is associated with ? aphthous ulcers

I got three ortho cases, one squamous cell carcinoma

Altered cast

Altered cast technique? Support


Gracey’s curette no. 13 and 14 used for? Distal surface – 1-4 ant, 5-6 ant and pm, 7-8 post, 11-12 post mesial, 13-14 post

After a gingivectomy how does the site heal? a. from the epithelium of the pockets b. epithelium of the adjacent alveolar mucosa endothelium of the blood vessels

primary intention

The gingivectomy approach to pocket elimination results in A. healing by primary intention. B. adequate access to correct irregular osseous contours. retention of all or most of the attached gingiva. D. None of the above.

Epulis fissuratum pic

2 questions were on gingivectomy

Gingivectomy is used to remove suprabony perio abscess T/F

Gingivectomy is used to remove suprabony pocket T/F

have denture, after 5 years he complains of ulcer and inflammation in lower buccal vestibule. What is the diagnosis: 1/Hypertrophic frenum. 2/ Epulis fissuratum

Epulis fissuratum should not be removed before the fabrication of new denture T/F

What is the cause of epulis fissuratum unstable denture b. under extention c. over extention d. traumatic occlusion – DD: The cleft-like kesions of epulis fissuratum result primarily from overextension of denture flanges. The overextension may result from long-term neglected or settling subsequent to residual ridge resorption. Traumatic occlusion of natural teeth opposing an artificial denture may also cause this condition.

Denture stomatitis: localized or generalized chronic inflammation of the denture bearing mucosa. Clinically, there is redness and a burning sensation. There may be or may not be discomfort. Trauma and secondary fungal infection appear to be the most likely cause of denture stomatitis. Treatment: 1. Improved oral hygiene 2. Tissue rest 3. Antifungal therapy (nystatin) 4. Resilient conditioners 5. New, well-fitting dentures.





Thought to develop because of increased fibrinolytic activity causing accelerated lysis of the blood clot. It is most common following extraction of the mandibular molars. Smoking, premature mouth rinsing, hot liquids, surgical trauma, and oral contraceptives all have been implicated in the development of a dry socket. Careful technique and minimal trauma reduce the frequency of patients developing dry socket. The patient develops severe, dull, throbbing pain 2 to 4 days after a tooth extraction. The pain is often excruciating, may radiate to the ear, and is not relieved by oral analgesics.


Flush out debris with slightly warmed saline solution – gently

Place a sedative dressing in socket (eugenol). The dressing should be removed within

48 hours and replaced until the patient becomes asymptomatic. (1. The gauze provides an attachment for the obtundent paste so it stays in the socket 2. Eugenol is the active component in most sedative dressings)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory analgesics should be prescribed if necessary / ANTIBIOTICS ARE GENERALLY NOT INDICATED.


Dry socket is the most common complication seen after the surgical removal of a MANDIBULAR MOLAR. Curetting a dry socket can cause the condition to worsen because healing will be further delayed, any natural healing already taking place will be destroyed, and there is a risk of causing the localized inflammatory process to be spread to the adjacent sound bone. Can occur in 3%of mandibular third molar extractions. Will heal with irrigation and local treatment for pain control.



Estimated Toxic Dose–> 5 to 10 mg/kg

Estimated Lethal Dose (Adults)–> 2.5 to 5.0 gm (F- alone) & 5 to 10 gm (for F- in NaF)

Estimated Lethal dose (kids)–> 500mg (for <3yrs) &

16mg/kg (for >3yrs)

Water fluoridation–> 0.7 ppm [ADA]

Water Fluoridation range–> 0.7 to 1.2 ppm [ADA]

Skeletal fluorosis starts at–> 3 ppm (chronic use of F-)

Dental fluorosis starts at–> 1ppm (chronic use of F-)



Too much anesthetic in the bloodstream can cause toxicities to the CNS and cardiovascular

Toxicity: The CNS effects include restlessness, stimulation, tremors, convulsive seizures followed by CNS depression, slowed respiration even coma. The cardiovascular effects include bradycardia and reduction of cardiac

Ester local anesthetic allergic manifestations include nasolabial swelling, itching, and oral mucosal

LA have NO effect on potassium at the nerve axon



Primary retention form—retention form preparation features lock or retain the restorative material in the tooth: 1) Mechanical locking of the inserted amalgam into

surface irregularities of the preparation (even though the desired texture of the preparation walls is smooth) to allow good adaptation of the amalgam to the tooth.

(2) Preparation of vertical walls (especially facial and lingual walls) that converge occlusally. (3) Special retention features, such as locks, grooves, coves, slots, pins, steps, or amalgam pins, that are placed during the final stage of tooth preparation.


Primary resistance form—resistance form preparation features help the restoration and tooth resist fracturing as a result of occlusal (1) Resistance features that assist in preventing the tooth from fracturing. (a) Maintaining as much unprepared tooth structure as possible (preserving cusps and marginal ridges). (b) Having pulpal and gingival walls prepared perpendicular to occlusal forces, when possible. (c) Having rounded internal preparation angles. (d) Removing unsupported or weakened tooth structure. (e) Placing pins into the tooth as part of the final stage of tooth preparation (note: this strategy is considered a secondary resistance form feature). (2) Resistance form features that assist in preventing the amalgam from fracturing. (a) Adequate thickness of amalgam (1.5 to 2 mm in areas of occlusal contact and 0.75 mm in axial areas). (b) Marginal amalgam of 90 degrees or greater. (c) Boxlike preparation form, which provides uniform amalgam thickness. (d) Rounded axiopulpal line angles in class II tooth preparations.



Excessive saliva is a prominent toxic effect of mercury. The presence of mercury in the body is determined by a urine test. Treatment may include gastric lavage with milk and egg white or sodium bicarbonate, chelation with British anti-lewisite (BAL), and fluid therapy. Note: British Anti-Lewisite (BAL) or Dimercaprol and penicillamine are two drugs currently marketed for promoting the excretion of mercury, lead, and several other agents. Mercury that is absorbed into the circulatory system may be deposited in any tissue. Higher-than average accumulations occur in the BRAIN, LIVER and KIDNEY. Mercury does not collect irreversibly in human tissues. There is an average half-life of 55 days for transport through the body to the point of excretion. Thu mercury that came into the body years ago is no longer present in the body.


Maxilla before mandible Distal before mesial

Start with third molar, second molar, second premolar, first premolar, lateral, central. Finally, you extract the first molar then the canine as last teeth to be extracted.

The two teeth that are the most difficult to remove, the first molar and canine, should be extracted last. Removal of the teeth on either side weakens the bony socket on the mesial and distal side of these teeth, and their subsequent extraction is made more straightforward.

Sham Sham’s RQs


Distance between implants? 3mm

Hemophilia test – PTT

Mouthwash in children: NaF, Chlorhex (sodium fluoride used when there are caries)

Mouthwash given to a comprimsed child – Listerine, Chlorhex (there is over the counter listerene for kids without alcohol – both NaF, if for disability NaF not there then listerine)

Benzodiazepine moa – potentiate GABA, not inhibit. Potentiate the action of GABA – Mosby: enhance the effect of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at GABAA receptors on chloride channels; this increases chloride channel conductance in the brain (GABAAreceptors are ion channel receptors). Benzodiazepines produce their calming effects by DEPRESSING THE LIMBIC SYSTEM & RETICULAR FORMATION through potentiation of the central inhibitor neurotransmitter (neurons) gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Tolerance and physical dependence can occur with prolonged high dosage, but they are much safer than

6) Abfraction – Mosby: Abfraction is tooth loss in the cervical area caused by biomechanical loading. Occlusal loading resulting in tooth flexure, mechanical microfractures, and tooth substance loss in the cervical area; may appear similar to erosion.

Erosion – Mosby: Erosion (sometimes called corrosion)—usually in the cervical area of facial surface of tooth; may be caused by acid beverages or citrus Erosion is wear secondary to chemical presence.

Bucolingual space needed for 4mm implant- 8mm? 7mm was not given – 2mm on bucal and 2 mm on So, for a 4 mm diameter implant, I need 4.0+1.9 + 1.9 = 7.8 mm. – Carranza: Assuming an implant is 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm long, the


minimal width of the jawbone needs to be 6 to 7 mm, and the minimal height should be 10 mm (minimum of 12 mm in the posterior mandible, where an additional margin of safety is required over the mandibular nerve). This dimension is desired to maintain at least 1.0 to 1.5 mm of bone around all surfaces of the implant after preparation and placement. (BL 6mm – MD 7 mm)

Alplrazolam: BDZ, sedative/antianxiety, medium duration of action benzodiazepine, it Inc the frequency of opening of chloride channel in GABA receptors in the It Inc the effect of Gaba at Gaba 1.

Biphosphonate, there is difference between osteoradiorecrosis (with radiation therapy) and osteonecrosis with bisphosphonate. Bronj (bispohophonate related osteonecrosis of jaw)

Hip joint- premedicate or not – No need Dentin

14 mm crowding- ortho and surgery, ortho only, surgery only – Ext and ortho should b enough

Warfarin- wat test – INR

Patient smokes, is implant contraindicated? No

5 year old child not cooperative, wat to do? conscious sedation? voice control? General anesthesia?

Most common problem in clinic? Syncope

Mech of of fluoride – Replacing of HA with hydroxy fluoroaptite

Precations for hep patient? Standard precaution, no other precaution necessary

How to treat a patient. give an order ex: perio, endo, operative? ortho last – endo perio operative ortho

OP PIC- osteosarcoma or ossifying fibroma? Ossifying fibroma: radiographically appears as either a well-circumscribed lucency or a lucency with opaque foci. Osteosarcoma sunburst/ossifying fibroma wellcircumscribed rl/ro

Currete used for mesial surface of tooth – 11-12


Forcep not used for extraction of root – not 23 is cow horn.

Commonly contraindication for surgery recently? Bisphosphonates

Primary molar differs from permanent in cervical constriction – T

Most common organism in implant failure; same as regular dentition

Dislodged clot; sedative dressing

27)Treatment of ANUG: Debridement, H2O2/ chlorhexidine rinses, antibiotics if systemic symptoms (fever, lymphadenopathy). If it is systemic Metronidazole, amoxicillin.

How to treat a patient with implant supoorted dentures: fluouride – yes Fl for abutment in overdenture, need options to decide the Not for implant.

29)Epinephrine mech of action – epi stimulates both alpha 1,2 and beta 1,2 receptors. Epinephrine is used to treat anaphylactic shock. It stimulates alpha 1-adrenergic and 2-adrenergic, beta 1- adrenergic and 2-adrenergic receptors. B2 receptor stimulation aids in relieving bronchospasms.

Battle sign – Battle’s sign, also mastoid ecchymosis, is an indication of fracture of middle cranial fossa of the skull, and may suggest underlying brain Battle’s sign consists of bruising over the mastoid process, as a result of extravasation of blood along the path of the posterior auricular artery.


Pejrre robin sy drome – Retrognathia, glossoptosis, cleft Google: Pierre Robin sequence is a set of abnormalities affecting the head and face, consisting of a small lower jaw (micrognathia), a tongue that is placed further back than normal (glossoptosis), and blockage (obstruction) of the airways. The three main features are cleft palate, retrognathia (abnormal positioning of the jaw or mandible) and glossoptosis (airway obstruction caused by backwards displacement of the tongue base).

Gingivectomy icsion – external Its excision starts from apical of pocket (JE), but coronal to mucogingival junction, secondary healing.

Cauliflower shaped lesion – Verrucous carcinoma, condyloma accuminata, papilloma.


Asymptomatic periodontitis, long- standing, asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic lesion. It is usually accompanied by radiographically visible apical bone resorption. Bacteria and their endotoxins cascading out into the apical region from a necrotic pulp cause extensive demineralization of cancellous and cortical bone. Occasionally, there may be slight tenderness to percussion or palpation testing. The diagnosis of asymptomatic apical periodontitis is confirmed by the following: (1) General absence of symptoms. (2) Radiographic presence of radiolucency. (3) Confirmation of pulpal necrosis. A totally necrotic pulp provides a safe harbor for the primarily anaerobic microorganisms—if there is no vascularity, there are no defense cells. Asymptomatic apical periodontitis traditionally has been classified histologically as apical granuloma or apical cyst. The only accurate way to distinguish them is by histopathologic

Primary- cold or percusiion or ept

Permanent – ? thermal or ept – tricky question, EPT for perio and thermal for endo

Which perio conditions we need antibiotics – Localized Agressive periodontitis (ANUG only if systemic involvement).

Ranitidine – H2 antagonist, used to treat GERD

39)Methotrexate- Antimetabolite antineoplastic agent, anticancer drug with folic acid.

Diazepam – BDZ, sedative, anxyolitic, long duration of

Which ka most common epilelsy in children – Petit mal

Status epileptic medication – Diazepam

Maxillary sinus which view – Waters

Buccal frenum – Triangularis or buccinators

45)Pontics – Most aesthetic is Ovate most common is modified ridge

Succedaneous tooth – All permanent except 1st, 2nd and 3rd molar

Most common emergency in dental – Syncope

Pregnant women which nerves get suppressed – ?

Apexogenesis does what? maintenance of pulp vitality to allow continued development of the entire root. Apical closure occurs approximately 3 years after eruption. The key is to allow the body to make a stronger root. This procedure relates to teeth with retained viable pulp tissue in which the pulp tissue is protected, treated, or encouraged to permit the process of normal root lengthening, root wall thickening, and apical closure. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy can be performed more safely and effectively to treat the pulpal disease. Indications: (1) Immature tooth with incomplete root formation and with damaged coronal pulp and healthy radicular pulp. Contraindications: (1) Avulsed teeth. (2) Unrestorable teeth. (3) Teeth with severe horizontal fracture. (4) Necrotic teeth. Prognosis—good when pulp capping or shallow pulpotomy is done correctly; conventional pulpotomy is not as successful. Success rate depends on the following: (1) Extent of pulpal damage. (2) Restorability of the tooth

Apexification: not vital pulp therapy because the tooth is pulpless. 2. Definition— method to stimulate the formation of calcified tissue at the open apex of pulpless teeth. 3. Indication—infected teeth with open apices in which standard instrumentation techniques cannot create an apical stop to facilitate effective obturation of the canal. Technique—disinfection of canal followed by induction or placement of an acceptable apical barrier. a. Calcium hydroxide and MTA have been used to create an apical barrier. (1) Calcium hydroxide may be used to induce apical hard tissue A thick paste of calcium hydroxide must be placed in


the canal and replaced every 3 months until a hard tissue barrier forms, against which gutta-percha may be placed to fill the canal. This traditional technique may require 1 year for hard tissue formation. MTA can be packed into the apical 3 mm of the canal, and the remainder of the canal can be filled with gutta-percha at the same appointment. MTA has established biologic outcomes in terms of healing and root- end closure at least comparable to teeth treated with calcium hydroxide. Advantages of MTA compared with calcium hydroxide—treatment can be completed in less time, improved patient compliance, reduced cost of clinical time.



Q1- What will not set off an event in a child with sickle disease Trauma Cold Infection Nitrous oxide


Q2-What not to do in veneer:

try in paste for shade

apply silane to inner surface apply bonding agent

etch enamel with hydroflouric acid


Q3-What is the purpose of making a record of protrusive relation and what function does it serve after it is made

To register the condylar path and to adjust the inclination of the incisal

To aid in determining the freeway space and to adjust the inclination of the incisal guidance.

C. To register the condylar path and to adjust the condylar guides of the articulator so that they are equivalent to the condylar paths of the patient.

To aid in establishing the occlusal vertical dimension and to adjust the condylar guides of the articulator so that they are equivalent to the condylar paths of the


Q4-9 year old child with POOR oral hygiene needs ortho treatment, what do we do? A- no treatment B- removable appliances C- fix appliances D- semi fix appliances


Q5-You will let the patient to sign the informed consent when?

a) after you discuss the treatment plan

directly after the diagnosis

after done with extraction procedure


Q6-Patient evaluated after perio therapy wht would u check Attachment loss Pocket depth Bleeding on probing Oral hygiene

If q asking what the dentist will check on pt mouth to evalute success of treatment will be C, bleeding in probing: The best criterion to evaluate the success of scaling and root planning is NO EVIDENCE OF BLEEDING ON PROBING. Bleeding on probing indicates inflammation in the tissue. The amount of inflammation present is used to determine the effectiveness of periodontal instrumentation and home care by the patient.

If q asking the rate of success depend on what ? So D, Patient oral hygiene – the best indicator of success of a periodontal flap procedure is postoperative maintenance and plaque control by the patient.



Q7-Researcher has set alpha at 0.05. Results showed p value 0.01 and researcher rejected null hypothesis. What kind of error is it? – They had set the value at 0.05 and result came out 0.01which is less than the set value so it’s a null hypothesis and since they rejected it which means there was incorrect rejection which is type 1 error


Q8- Proscar (finestride) is used to treat? Benign prostatic hyperplasia

Q9-Motion sickness medication – Scopolamine

Q10-3 year old 5mm intruded – Observe, just 3 yrs not at all any damage to permanent.

Q11- Most common respiratory emergency – Hyperventilation

Q12-Upper first PM forceps – For maxillary premolars can be 150, 65, 286. For mandibular premolars 151

From 13-47 from other RQ

Q48-Balanced occlusion use for what? Complete Denture

Q49- Incisal guide table? There was no removing or lifting pin in the option – Incisal guide table: construction of a custom that preserved anterior guidance, from Mosby. Anterior guidance must be preserved by means of construction of a custom incisal guide table, especially when restorative procedures change the surfaces of anterior teeth that guide the mandible in excursive (lateral, protrusive) movements, from Mosby.

Q50- Anterior guidance purpose? Protects posterior teeth in lateral function

Q51-Longitudinal studies what factors are least important?

Q52-Pka depends upon? Ionized and non ionized ions, Onset of action. Low pka— more free ionized—faster onset

Q53- Whats the purpose of posterior disocclusion? its christensen phenomena, to avoid non working interfrence which is destructive

Q54- Finish margin of pfm? Pfm – chamfer/ shoulder

Q56-Renal failure which pain killer? Tylenol, Oxycodone for hepatic.

Q57-Wat are the reason for the crossbite? Retained primary tooth, construction of Max

Q58- Lesions most commonly seen in jaw? PA lesions?

Q59- Pyogenic granuloma by which bacteria? Pyogenic granulomas (PGs) are benign vascular lesions that occur most commonly on the acral skin of children. The term pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer. Originally, these lesions were thought to be caused by bacterial infection; however, the etiology has not been determined.

Q60- Prevelance and incidence question? simple one – Prevalance: total number of cases

incidence: New number of cases

Q61-Palatal tori question? horshoe was there in the option, Yes horseshoe/ U shaped major connector used for RPD

Q62-10% calcium hydroxide varnish best use where? Amalgam restoration, zinc phosphate, in the walls of preparation cavity, not cavosurface areas

Q63-Conjugation does wat? covalent bonding with glucuronic acid to make water- soluble for excretion

Q64-Trisomy 21? Down Syndrome


Q67-Sibilant sound when to check? DD: phonetics are tried in at the time of the “wax try- in of the trial denture” – wax trial with teeth set

Q68-Osteomylitis which bacteria? Staph.areus

Q69-Facebow record? Maxilla&hinge axis – it transfers the relationship of maxillary arch and temporomandibular joint to the casts. It records the upper model’s (maxilla) relationship to the External Acoustic Meatus, in the hinge axis.

Q70-Lingual bar? Shaped like a half-pear tapered toward the tissue in the superior border and has its greater bulk at the inferior border. For a lingual bar, the depth of the vestibule should exceed 7 to 8 mm. This is the simplest and most commonly used major connector. – Mosby

Major conector of RPD, indicated for lingual vestibule of 7mm minimum

Q71-CD wat type of occlusion? Balanced

Q72-what will have wavelength ? Hue

Q73- Neutometesis – Severe nerve damage, neuromatosis- cause tumors on nerve, also called neurofibromatosis, both the nerve and the nerve sheath are disrupted

Q74-median? Placing the number in value order and find the middle, or example: 1,1,1,2,2,4,6. the median is 2. nothing to do with average

Q75- Palatal expansion does not need a labial bow why? Cause it has no effect on palate, not for expansion.

Q77- Albuterol side effect? Xerostomia

Q79- fluxetine action? Ssri – Prozac (fluoxetine) is an antidepressant belonging to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class of drugs. Prozac is mainly used for the treatment of major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder

Q81-best imaging for condyle: Reverse towne


Metalloceramic crown which type of bevel

Chamfer 1mm (lingual?) Chamfer 1.5mm Shoulder 1mm

Shoulder 1.5mm (labial)

Metal ceramic restorations PFMs – A chamfer finish line and all margins should be placed supragingivally when possible. The necessary thickness of metal substructure is 0.5mm. The minimal porcelain thickness is 1- 1.5mm. Thus, the tooth reduction required for a PFM crown is -1.5-2.0mm. The labial shoulder width is ideally 1.5mm. The tooth preparation reduction for metal-ceramic restorations (1.5 to 2.0 mm) must provide space for metal (0.5 mm) and porcelain (1.0 to 1.5 mm).


2. Benadryl do what: Antitissive,h1 blocker,anesthetic, cause Xerostomia (anticholinergic, antihistamine, sedative).

Electrosurgery .hemorrhagie and excess tissue, Side effect — ging recession.

Where go item when swallowed by accident – Right bronchus

Demineralization of enamel A. ph of plague less 6.4 B.Dentin ph 6.4 C.Start at subsurface go like enamel rods

Junctional epithelium attached by Fibers Or hemidesmosom

Pinkham pre-cooperational child is – Lacking cooperative ability (the “pre-cooperative” patient) a. Very young children with whom communication cannot be established nor comprehension expectedb. Children with specific debilitating or handicapping conditions


Main reason of Osteoporosis US nutrition B.genes C.environment 10.Sedation is for- Anxious

11.Which is least has lichenoid eruption

1.erythem 2.amalgam tatto3.drug rn

Amalgam produced lichenoid reaction. So answer is A

Water contamination with amalgam cause: Delayed expansion

AORS is mean??? Adjusted Odd Ratios

14. Reciprocal anchorage done by… Reciprocal – Type of anchorage when two units of teeth move towards each other with equal distance. For example in Diastema by using elastic bands.

Oxycodone hypotension and itching by – Itchin by Histamine

Oxycontin (oxycodone hydrochloride) is an opioid drug used for the management of moderate to severe pain, usually for an extended time period. Oxycontin is not an “as needed for pain (PRN) drug.

Porcelain bevel types: Shoulder and chamfer, Chamfer and beveled shoulder, Chamfer nad chamfer

Unlike the PFM restoration which accepts any marginal design (bevel, chamfer, shoulder), marginal tooth preparation for the ALL-ceramic crown or porcelain jacket crown MUST BE A SHOULDER.

Tx initial for large subgingival caries – Glass ionomer filling

Intial tx for local aggresive perio – Tetracycline

19 Which one is. Acidogenic bacteria – Strep mutants acidigenic , & aciduric

Most common odontogenic tumor

Ameloblastoma Amelob fibroma Odontoma Adenomagoid tumor

(ameloblastoma is most common epithelial odontogenic tumor)

Incisial and coronal parts to be matched in porcelain metal crowns done by: Internal coloring of porcelain

External glazing

Polishing and grinding to change light reflection Firing under high temp

Uncarious short premolar for retainer under fpd

Crown Inlay Onlay ¾

Ian lingually located,tube of xray moved inferiorly and beam sup, location of nerve: Mesial Distally Apically Occlusialy

Attachemen loss in furcation primary etiology – Oral biofilm

Taurodontism in which stage – Morpho -shape Which one centrally acting muscle relaxant Dandtrolene, Diazepam

Stimulated salivary flow – 1ml per min

Has only md beat shape of occlusion…

Balanced in centric Balanced in working Group function Canine function

Intial for caries: Bacteri carbohy susceptible toot, Bacteria polysaccharide enamel MOST COMMON epithelial odontogenic tumor in children – mucoepidermoid 31.Antabuse – Aldehide dehydrogen, antabuse inhibits the enzyme Aldeyhyde

dehydrogenase, this is used to treat alchoholism. Its actually called acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

32.Beclometasone for asthma

Short acting – its short acting, used only during attacks


Less potent than cortisole 33.Fiber post – Elsatic as dentin

Pt try to hide fear and anxiety, what we look for to inderstand it – Micro expression

Wheel chair people what is true:

Sliding transport the best Ask pt to remove catheters Ask pt do not buckle up

Wheel chair transfer is mot appropriate 36.IG mechanism of action

37.Maslow theory – Theory of human motivation


how do you treat traumatic bone cyst

leave it alone excise c. give meds

Treatment: consists of opening the lesion, curettage, and closure. It may contain blood, serosanguineous fluid, debris composed mainly of a blood clot, or may be completely devoid of solid material.

Which cyst is associate with anterior cyst w/ crown – dentigerous cyst (follicular cyst) or eruption cyst

Common cyst is lower anterior teeth and teeth is vital – periapical cemento dysplasia

Know different between amelogenesis imperfecta and dentinogenesis imperfect

AI: ectodermal – DI: mesenchymal

Which of the following represents the basic constituent of the most root canal sealer

zinc oxide zinc stearate c. polyvinyl resin d. polycarboxylate e. zinc oxyphosphate

Aging of the pulp is evidenced by an increase in

vascularly cellular elements c. fibrous elements d. pulp stones

In the normal dental pulp, which of the following histologic features is least likely to appear

cell-free zone of weil b. palisade odontoblastic layer c. lymphocytes and plasma cells

undifferentiated mesenchymal cells

the most commonly found salivary gland tumor is

adenocystic carcinoma b. pleomorphic adenoma c. muco epidermoid carcinoma 9 the action f the Hawley appliance is mainly

intrusion b. tipping c. bodily movement

a light force applied to the periodontal ligament during orthodontic treatment is considered

intermittent b. direct c. continuous d. indirect

For tooth movement, the force need not be continuous, but it is critical that the force be applied for a minimally acceptable period of time to elicit the biologic response necessary. The amount of force (heavy or light) determines the biologic pathway of tooth movement and the formation or lack of formation of a hyalinized zone with under- mining resorption.

the fluoride concentration in most dentifrices range from 1-5 ppm b. 900-1500ppm c. 450-700ppm d. 4000-6000ppm

in a full upper denture the post palatal seal is determined by

the technician b. the depth of the vibration line c. 2-3mm 13 how is scrap amalgam is stored – under sulfide

the leas likely situation for a carcinoma to occur in the oral cavity is

floor of the mouth b. alveolar ridge c. lateral border of the tongue


histologically, the loss of the rete peg often is a sign of

pemphigus b. lichen planus c. pemphigoid d. syphills

which of the following represents the predominate type cell type in crevicular epithelium

mast cell b. PMN c. macrophage d. lymphocyte e. plasma cell 17 which of the organisms are involved with periodontal disease

P. gingivilits b. E. species c. C. rectus d. Bacteroid e. all of the abov

Each of the following has been associated with gastric limitation, except

acetaminophen b. alcohol c. ibuprofen d. indomethacin

The most common reason for fracture of an amalgam in class 2 pedo molar toth

insufficient deth b. saliva contamination during condensation d. line angle too sharp (sharp axis-pulpal line angle)

the best reason for RPD over fixed partial denture

hygiene b. cooperation c. esthetic

where is the gold directed on an MO onlay spruce

a, faces pulpal axial line angle b. occlusal floor c. pulpal floor d. gingival floor

You never have it at a 90 degree angle, if you direct to the pulpal, gingival or occlusal it would be a 90 degree which will create a hot spot. So it needs to be attached at an angle to allow flow of gold.

Which injection post the greatest risk for a hematoma – PSA

For anterior crown the finish line should be

a-at cervical edge b-below cervical edge c-between cej and epithelium lining

d-between crest and attached gingiva

Behaviour modifiaction definition – a type of psychotherapy that attempts to modify observable, maladjusted behavior patterns by substituting a new response or set of responses to a given stimulus. Psychologists have developed many techniques to modify patient behavior by using the principles of learning theory. Examples of techniques/methods used mainly in pediatric dentistry. – A procedure that slowly develops behavior by reinforcing successive approximations to a desired

Reciprocal anchorage? Elastic bands to close diastema

3mm crowding in 8 yr child , what is the treatment plan?

a-extraction of canines and observe b-exraction of primary canine and give lingual arch c-give lingual arch wire

Sequestra seen in – osteomyelitis

Morpphine over dose causes all except?

a-somnolence b-constipation c- pinpoint pupils

Gingival retraction cord disadvantages?

antiviral given oral also cure mucous and systemic disaesa? Cotrimazole, fluconazole

Side effects of oral sedation

Nitroglycerine side effects

Necrotisizing sialometaplasia – Found on hard palate caused by ischemia to minor salivary gland

15 year old has fever, malaise, vesicles,l ymphadenopathy? a- cat scartch disease b-acute herpetic gingivostomatis

Which bacteria causes elastenase, collagenase? a- strep b- staph c-gingivalis

(Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the answer, but i don’t have that in my choices)

Automated defibrilator, how does it work?


a- monophase function b-2 shocks

c-contraindicated below 12 year old

d- discharge when needed

W hich antibiotic work on gingiva? a- erythromycin estolate,

b-erythromycin stearate

c- azithromycin

For which factor is least likely to refer endo case Dilacerations


Inability to obtain anaesthesia

Mesial inclination of molar

To prevent dimeraliztion of enamel from orthodontic treatment, which method is expensive?

a-flouride varnish every 6 months

b- 6 months prophylais

c-prescribed mouth wash

d- community fluoride water

patient has brown spot on lower left and with the explorer it is retentive? a- floweble resin

b- amalgam c- composite

d-pit and fissure sealant

Patient is having white flakes on her soft palate , gone when rubbed. using albuterol inhaler regularly since 1 week due to soccer game, what is your diagnosis? albuterol->dry mouth->alter pH-> oportunistic candid-> candidiasis

bis-phosphate used in all except?

A) Prostate cancer to bone

breast cancer to bone

c) osteomyelitis (ans)

D) metastatic

Which one is schedule 2? 1- Vicodin (3)

2- hydrocodon + Acet (3) hydrocodone containing products are being considered to be reclassified as Schedule II drugs

Which impression has water as by product? Polyether

Hyrdrocoilled Silicon addation Condseation sillion

ANS: should be polysulfide – Polyether, by product alcohol – Addition silicon no by product.

Pain on half of the face, that comes once a month and its?

Periodontal problems mostly assoicted with Hypertension Smoking, Deibetes plaque

freacture on the orbit of the left eyes which border of the maxillary sinus will it effect?



Inferior Postier Anterior

What was Chess and Thomas categories of Childern Temprture?I (Activity , rhythmicity, distraction, approach)

Stages of AIDS and no. of Leukocyte count.

Treacher Collin Syndrome – cleft palate, shortened soft palate, malocclusion, anterior open bite, enamel hypoplasia

Optimum treatment for palatal papillary hyperplasia?

Radical dissection

b) Electrosurgery

Difference between snuff dipper and nicotina stomatitis – Snuff is by smokeless tobacco and present in the buccal mucosa, nicotina stomatitis is present on palate therefore called smokers palate

Aspirin and Yinseng? What happens if given together – Bleeding

Prostaglandin analogue? Misoprostol

Clinical test for Rheumatoid arthritis

Sjogrens syndrome is associated with? Lymphoma? T – Sjögren’s moderately increases risk for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Area of least attached gingival? Which tooth – Mand premolar

Brown tumors associated with which disease – Hyperparathyrodism, giant cell tumor of the bone. Brown tumors may be rarely associated with ectopic parathyroid adenomas[4] or end stage renal

Internal component of implant

Rubber dam retainer which property- options were 1 modulus of elasticity, 2 elastic deformation, 3 permanent deformation

Traumatic cyst treatment? a.Aspirational b.Marsupialization Curettage (dd) treatment

A 14 year old patient presents to your office for multiple extractions. Patient’s mother informs you that her son took 325 mg aspirin the night before for a headache. Which of the following holds true regarding performing multiple extractions on the patient? Do the extractions b. Wait 2-5 days c. Wait 7-10 days d. Wait 12-14 days

Use of a gold casting instead of dental amalgam should be considered in the restoration of an MOD carious lesion on a maxillary second molar when

greater sealing of the cavity is

B. the preparation is wider than a third of the intercuspal distance.

esthetics is the primary concern of the

All of the above

Primary risk factor for periodontitis

Tobacco (dd)


Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors currently available to predict the development and progression of periodontitis.

How do you diagnose periodontitis ? Bitwings


PA (dd)


Yes PA to diagnose periodontitis it is the standard for PDL disease…. for bone loss DD mentioned Bitewings is the best

1) If a tooth is not a candidate for full coverage crown , onlay is the best

2) Conservative onlays have superior retention compared to full crowns .

A- both are true B- 1 true n 2 false C- 1 false n 2 true D- both false – if tooth not candidate to full coverge crown , so its not indicated to onlay ( dd)

Minimum ferrule effect = 5mm

Lower denture is loose whats wrong with it? (over extended, under extended????


The denture base completely covers what muscle

Medial pterygoid

Lateral pterygoid


d. Buccinator

Which of the following are false regarding meperidine

Select all that apply – A. most abused drug by health professionals B- most widely used narcotic in American hospitals C- less potent than morphine and produces slight euphoria with miosis D- promethazine is contraindicated in pts taking meperidine. E – used for obstetric anesthesia

All true mentioned in ddsurgery except , c and d is false ( no miosis, used with promethazine)


Preet Kanwal’s RQ + Mary Esma’s Post


Drug interaction of Aspirin with atenolol – long term NSAID use (longer than 1 week) decreses effect of atenolol – Mosby: NSAIDs can inhibit the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, B blockers, and

External incision bevel: Gingevectomy

Amitriptyline: TCA (tricyclic antidepressant so tx for depression)

Aminophilline: bronchodilator so tx asthma

Atenolol: Cardio selective Beta 1 blocker

Question regarding tilted molar type of denture:

Ortho case regarding identification of class 1 class 2 class 3

Side effects of antibiotics: Fungal infection

Lichen planus, smokers palate

Erythroplakia, leukoplakia – precancerous condition

11. CI of nitrous oxide: COPD (Safe for asthma), nasal congestion, upper respiratory tract infection, intestinal obstruction, deformity of nasal structure and drug dependency.

Pregnancy is NOT absolute contraindication. Mental retardation is also a contraindication. Sickle cell is not a CI.

Bevels in composite: Increase surface area, Increase retention, Aesthetic. Is called esthetic bevel, it reduce microleakage, improve esthetic, increase bond strength (dd) bevel angle is 45-60 (in dpm)

Bevels in amalgam: bevels for composite cavosurface — amalgam only for gingival and axiopulpal bevel only in permanent not primary

200 patient last year 300 this year incidence 100 ÷ 1000 = 1 = 10%

Common lymphoma of jaw – Burkitt in jaws

Greatest reccurrence of cancer of oral cavity? Squamous cell carcinoma

17. Heparin – PTT – HEparin PTT….HEmophilia A PTT. learn this 2 together(HePTT)

Coumarin – PT/INR

Distance between Implant and tooth – 1.5mm

Palatalgingival groove is seen in which teeth – Max lateral

Bacteria found on acute pulpitis – anaerobic

Synostosis- late closure of sutures, no closure at all,? Early – Synostosis (plural: synostoses) is fusion of two It can be normal in puberty, fusion of the epiphysis, or abnormal. When synostosis is abnormal it is a type of dysostosis. Synostosis within joints can cause ankylosis. (Eg. Craniosynostosis – prematurely fuses).

23. Alot of questions about rapport – mutual sense of trust and openness between indiviuals that, if neglected, compromises communication. Rapport is reciprocal, patients are more likely to respect a clinician’s beliefs and opinions if he or she is willing to truly listen to and respect theirs.

Trigeminal neuralgia not common in age before 30? T/F – over 50 years of age

TN = Prototypic neuropathic fascial pain: Typically there is a trigger point and the pain presents as electrical, sharp, shooting, and episodic (seconds to minutes in duration). Most commonly seen in patients over 50 years of age. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is still the mainstay of treatment.

Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by all except – dull constant pain

Trismus which space is involved – trismus is main sign of masticatory space infection (masseteric space, pterygomandibular space, temporal space) – DD


Aspirin overdose which symptom didnt belong: pyretic (fever) was answer. bcaz aspirin is Present: bleeding from gi, Tinnitus, Nausea and vomiting, Acid base disturbance or metabolic acidosis, Decrease tubular reabsorption of uric acid, Salicylism, Delirium, Hyperventilation

Turners tooth local trauma or infection

74 yr old patient needs a check up but first you gotta talk with his doctor bcause of his medical chart which organization is in charge of that? Some options… Osha, medicaid services, health insurance portability accountability act (hippa)

30. Modeling? make child observe her siblings or other px

Newborn whith 2 white lesions located in median palatal raphe: congenital epulis, something of the newborn? Epstein pearl present in median palatal Raphe in newborn

Lesion with suspected malignancy: incisonal biopsy

A pic of a patient with ulcerative papilas red in the whole mouth and red macules in the skin and patient felt tired: leukemia, peripheral giant cell geanuloma?

Syndorme with eyes bulging out – Crouzon

Pic of dentinogenesis imperfect –

Supernumerary teeth in what stage – Initiation

First sign of development of teeth 6th week?

Dental lamina

If patient has been on penicilin and comes with fever and more pain, change antibiotic but clindamycin wasnt an option, options included erythromycin and tetracycline.

Most potent bronchodilator – Isoproteronol

Stages of treatment: .. Maintenance And all that

T test: 2 means

Chi square: 2 categorical variables

Cohort retro and perspective: Risk factor, Retro= historical.

Case control (ODD): rare

Exam that failed to prove 5 cases that were positive for disease: false negative

Chroma: Saturation of color

Patient whit green and orange stains: medications, diet,? Poor oral hygiene

Cleft lip and palate in caucasians 1:100 or 1:500

Cleft lip alone 1:1000 Cleft palate alone 1;2000 Both 1:700 0r 1:800

Difference between fear and anxiety: fear is focal anxiety is generalized, fear unknown anxiety known, ??? fear is known anxiety unknown

Which thing decreases or increases in age dont remember but i answered value – Chroma increase, value decrease and hue unchanged

Untreated decay frequently in black? more caries in hispanic- more untreated caries in black due to lack of finance (mosby)

Functions of the collimator in rx: Reduce exposure

Intruded primary central 5 mm with 3 yrs of age: Observe


Apexogenesis do not : root lengethening, root vascularization

Internal bleach: external or internal cervical reabsorption? external cervical resorption

One wall defect? Hemiseptum

Chancre what it resembles? I put squamous cell carcinoma

Nitrous oxide contra indication: sicke cell anemia or hemophilia? SCA is not CI, not absolute but relative – to prevent sickle cell crisis

The setting of vinyl polysiloxane silicone can be retarded by latex gloves, eugenol?

60. Imbibition in hydrocolloids? Imbibition (absorption of water from the air) and syneresis (loss of water to the air or surrounding environment) occur with both,, so its true it occur with hydrocolloids (dd). But mostly we see it in clinic with alginate, and popularity of agar impression is limited becoz it need special equipment.

Bone morphogenic protein? BMP are present in DFDBA bone graft which makes it osteogenic

Alot of questions about perio connective tissue and flaps

Which procedure cannot be done in the distal of the 2 mnd molar to increase attached gingiva in a moderate pocket something like that – Distal widge, cant be done if we dont have adequate attached gingiva,,, while Apf we use it to increase attached gingiva

NBDE YesIcan August 2017

Analog (definition) – Is a replica of the actual implant, for lab purpose

Distance between implants – 3mm – between mental nerve 5mm – between vital tissue 2mm – buccal, lingual, maxillary sinus, nasal cavity and inferior border all are 1mm – between adjacent natural teeth 1.5 – 2-3mm below cej of the adjacent tooth

Taurodentism (definition) – apical enlargement of pulp

Cross sectional study (3 questions to identified what type of study) – descriptive study, used for prevalence and incidence, there is no correlation in these studies, no cause and effect


Cross-sectional study—study in which the health conditions in a group of people who are, or are assumed to be, a sample of a particular population (a cross section) is assessed at one time. Consider the hypothesis that drinking alcohol increases the risk of developing oral cancer. If researchers chose to conduct a cross-sectional study to explore this hypothesis, they might examine a group of men who drink alcohol and compare the occurrence of oral cancer among men who are not alcohol drinkers. The researchers could then determine whether there is an association between the presence of oral cancer and alcohol. Although this study is relatively quick and inexpensive, its potential to contribute to a judgment of causation is limited because it cannot determine whether the outcome (in this case, oral cancer) occurred before the men started drinking or if it developed as a result of some other cause (e.g., metastasis).


Clinical trial (2 questions)


a.Clinical trials—Clinical trials attempt to evaluate the effects of a treatment. A clinical trial aims to isolate one factor (e.g., a new drug) and examine its contribution to a patient’s health by holding all other factors as constant as possible. Well-designed


clinical trials use a double-blind design in which neither the subject nor the investigator knows to which group a subject belongs. is design helps prevent the potential for a biased interpretation of treatment effect (better or worse) that might occur if either the investigator or the subject knew to which treatment group (i.e., placebo or experimental agent) a subject belonged. Clinical trials compare the incidence of disease and side effects between the groups in the study to draw inferences about the safety and efficacy of the treatment or treatments under investigation.

Community trials—in a community trial, the group as a whole is studied rather than the individuals in it. The more similar the communities, the more valid the results. A known example of a community trial was the 1945 Newburgh-Kingston water fluoridation trial. In this study, NaF was added to the water of Newburgh, New York, and DMFT was compared with Kingston, New York, which was non uoridated.


Hazard communication paper ( 2 questions, one to identify which institutions created it (OSHA) and one to identify what materials are named hazardous) – chemical hazard MSDS, For general hazard OSHA. MSDS regulated by OSHA through Hazard Communication


Hazardous chemicals—the OSHA hazard communication standard requires employees to receive training about the risks of using hazardous chemicals and the safety precautions required when handling them. Employees must be trained in identification of hazardous chemicals and PPE to be used for each chemical. This training must occur within 30 days of employment or before the employee uses any chemicals and annually thereafter. Just as with the blood-borne pathogen standard, a written plan identifying employee training and detailing specific control measures used in the work- place must be compiled for hazardous chemicals. Penalties can be imposed on the employer if the office is not in compliance.

Chemical sterilization – Gluteraldehye 10 hrs

Informed consent (autonomy)

Veracity (they gave me the concept) – Principle: Veracity (“truthfulness”). The dentist has a duty to communicate

Radio resistant cells – Nerve was the answer

Cherubism – Bilateral jaws expansion, tx: no treatment

Ectodermal dysplasia ( 2 questions, they used words like anhidrosis (no sweat glands)

and Hypothricosis (decrease in hair)


Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia.1. X-linked recessive condition that results in partial or complete anodontia. 2. Patients also have hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, including hair, sweat glands, and nails. Microdontia.


Most common side effect of nitrous oxide (Nausea)

INR ( What it measure? extrinsic pathway, intrinsic pathway…..) 8 -1.3 normal – for surgery on patients taking anticoagulants 2-2.5

A child 16 kg how much LA ( options 34-48-72-115) 16*4.4 is 4


Ludwing angina ( 2 or 3 questions , what space is not involve, antibiotic they gave me options of meds) – Sub mental, sub lingual, sub mandibular space involved, Retro pharyngeal not involved. Penicillin, metronidazole, clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin are often the antibiotics of

Patient in dialysis do dental treatment day after dialysis

Suppression of cortisol (was a weird question, options, 20mg, 200 mg, 10mg, 1mg for 2 weeks in 2 years)

The more common site of caries: pit and fissures

Arthroscopy (they gave a short case question) – Steroid injections, disc manipulations, have a look in joint space


Surgical treatments for temporomandibular disorder . 1. Overview—surgical treatments of the TMJ include arthrocentesis, arthroscopy, disc repositioning, disc repair or removal, condylotomy, and total joint replacement. Arthroscopy involves the placement of two cannulas to allow access for intracapsular instrumentation of the superior joint space. Disc manipulation, disc release, posterior band cautery, and disc repositioning and stabilization techniques all have been described. Arthroscopy appears to be an effective modality in a select group of surgical patients and offers a potentially less morbid access to the joint.


Gardner syndrome – Supernumeary teeth, multiple polyp, intestinal polyp,

Indirect rest instead amalgam to get better… For ideal contour, I think indirect restoration instead of amalgam

More common PSICHIATRIC pathology in older ( Mania, depression, )

Vertically face divided (5, 3)

25. Penumbra (They gave the concept) – Penumbra is lack of sharpness of the film. It is a fuzzy, unclear area that surrounds a radiographic image and is affected by focal spot size (smaller the better), film composition (larger the size of crystals less sharp the image), and movement during the exposure.

Osteomyelitis Staph — infection from in to out — radiolucent— pain after ext — pen v V Inflammation of bone (and bone marrow) or osteomyelitis is common in the jaws. Most lesions are associated with extension of periodontal or periapical inflammation. Others are associated with trauma to the jaws. Pain, paresthesia, and exudation are typically present.

Patient said “I don’t have time to quick smoking (contemplation,


Down coding and unbundling

Most crucial in replantation after avulsion ( time, open or closed apex…)

Harder area to floss (mesial of first pm)

Bimaxillary protrusion (the gave me the concept) – Bimaxillary protrusion refers to a protrusive dentoalveolar position of maxillary and mandibular dental arches that produces a convex facial

32. Pka has effect on… The lower the pKa (dissociation constant) of the local anesthetic, the faster the onset of action, Low pka — more free base— fast onset.

Which is not radiopaque (AOT, Ameloblastic fibroma, Odontoma)


Least likely to recur – AOT

Anticancer drug with effect in acid folic – Methotrexate

RPI I bar fracture what do you do? Soldering

37. Brown tumors – Hyperparathyroidism, brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism is called giant cells lesion too, histologically resembles to central giant cell granuloma.

Macroglosia is not common in …. Hyperthyroidism

Clean tongue to prevent… odor

40. Sulfas MOA – stimulate insulin release from beta pancreatic cells (sulfonylureas hypoglycemic drugd). About sulfonamides antibiotic (inhibit PABA folic acid synthesis).

Differents questions of neurofromatosis (2 or 3) (What do you not see? Café au lait, lisch nodules of the iris, super numerary are

X ray to light and to dark

43. Geographic tongue (they gave me a short description) – Geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis, erythema migrans) 1. Common (2% of population) benign condition of the tongue of unknown cause. 2. Appears as white annular lesions surrounding atrophic red central zones that migrate with time. 3. Occasionally symptomatic (mild pain or burning). 4. No treatment necessary.

Nicotinic stomatitis (they gave me description) Nicotine stomatitis (Figure 4-4). White change in palate caused by smoking. 2. Red dots in the lesion are inflamed salivary duct orifices. 3. Not considered premalignant, unless related to “reverse smoking” (lighted end in mouth).

Retentive claps (suprabulge, infrabulge…)

Initial treatment of LAP (antibiotics, antibiotics+ SRP, SRP .)

Lefort 1 ( the answer was maxillary sinus)

Questions of apexogenesis and apexification (they gives you a short case and you have to decide) Apexogenesis –> Vital tooth / Apexification –> non-vital

Treatment of ranula – excise

Liquid in Glass ionomer – Polyacrylic acid

Source of epithelium for grafts – donor

Half erupted third molar in a 18 years old patient, WHY do you extract that molar? (to avoid chronic pericoronaritis, because thirds molars can produce crowding in anterior, to treat pocket on the distal of second molar and other option)

Tooth with crown best pulpal test – Thermal test

Nsaid who does not affect palettes – Celecoxib, selective cox 2

Multiple Myeloma first sign – bone pain

Melanoma common localization – Palate and gingiva, no

Reciprocal anchorage – used for closure of midline diastema, use of Crossbite elastics.

Pictures of Dentigerous cyst, leukemia, amelobrastic fibroma

PM with 3 canals – max 1PM

Outline shape of prep of mandibular first molar (triangular, ovoid, trapezoid…)

Slob rule – Same lingual opp buccal


Disadvantage of partial thickness flap – thin flap so tear easily, can get lost easily, Difficult to

Most stable in moisture – PVS

64. More common reason of amalgam failure – if ask for failure water contamination, if ask for fracture then cavity preparation. The contamination of the amalgam by moisture during trituration and condensation is unquestionably the principal cause of failures.

Antibiotic seen in GCF (no tetracycline in options) Gingival crevicular fluid: Azithromycin

Gingivectomy where to do incision – External incision, at the base of the

Perio maintenance interval (3months, 4, 6…)

True about Niti over stainless steel (options something like harder, more adaptable in curvatures (keep shape), flexibility….) Shape memory is the ability of nitinol to undergo deformation at one temperature, then recover its original, undeformed shape upon heating above its “transformation temperature”.

Intrapulpal anesthesia – back pressure

Supernumerary teeth seen in, Anterior maxilla … Occlusal radigraph best, Gardener, Down syndrome, Cledocranial

Treatment without consent – Battary

Least probable canal ledges (short, small, large, curved)

Med who increase cardiac output (beta blockers, alpha, ace…) – beta agonists, digitalis – It increases the force of contraction of the heart by inhibiting Na+,K+-ATPase and indirectly increasing intracellular calcium.

Wheezing seen in ( asthma, COPD)

Common between Aspirin and acetaminophen) – Antipyretic and analgesic

Montelukast Moa – Leukotriene receptor antagonist

Culture of sensitivity used to… Bact resistant

That question of 3 years old with 5 mm intrusion (they did not give to much details)

leave it

Most common emergency in dental office – Syncope! 90% – Hyperventilation 9%

80. Herpetic gingiva stomatitis (short description) – Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis diagnosed early (within 3 days of onset) is treated immediately with antiviral therapy (acyclovir, 15 mg/kg ve times daily for 7 days). All patients should receive pallia- tive care, including plaque removal, systemic NSAIDs, and topical anesthetics. Proper nutrition should be maintained. Patients should be made aware of the contagious nature of this disease when vesicles are present.

What do you look at Gardners (osteomas)

Ignoring a patient bad behavior – extinction

#8 with radiolucency increase in size for all of the following except (apical scar)

Occlusion (3 questions where is located the interference? Where to grind, balanced occlusion concept – Occlusion, in a dental context, means simply the contact between More technically, it is the relationship between the maxillary (upper) and mandibular (lower) teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest.


More common cells in cellulitis – leukocytosis (white cells above the normal range in the blood)

Most common tooth lost due to periodontitis – Max 2nd molar, maxi first most affected by periodontitis and max 2nd most common

Pathology with early teeth lost – Papillion-Lefevre syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, hypophosphatasia, neutropenia, leukemia and in some cases Langerhans cell histiocytosis

Epinephrine avoid in …. multiple sclerosis, Hypertension, thyroidism

Side effect of albuterol – Candida and xerostomia

Dental lamina ( 2, 6, 8, 12 weeks)

Best bone to implant located in – Mand ant, type 1

Implants: high torque low speed, low speed high torque…)

Repair of veneer – Micro etch, etch, silane, bonding

Cause of mucocele – trauma

Pulp necrosis what type of resorption (inflammatory, replacement, .)

K sparing drugs – Eplerenone (Inspra), Spironolactone (Aldactone), Triamterene (Dyrenium)

Patient with SCC and he said something like “ Are you saying that I have cancer? How do you respond? (Do you want to call someone to be with you now? This has better prognosis than others Others options)

Common salivary gland tumor – Pleomorphic Adenoma (mixed tumor)

Properties of Zinz polycarboxilate, and other with GIC

100. Staffne cyst – Depression of mandible on lingual side. Below IAN. Stafne (static) bone defect a. Diagnostic radiolucency of the mandible secondary to invagination of the lingual surface of the jaw. b. Located in the posterior mandible below the mandibular canal. (Static, Psyduo, Mand Fossa, No treatment, Round and RL)

Nystatin Moa – binds to ergosterol

Primary teeth who resemble mandibular first molar – 2nd

What to use with disable kid (voice control, consistency)

Patient with bradycardia what to give him (atropine, .) – Use atropine, and anticholinergic, if bradycardia is present (DD). Atropine has direct inhibitory effect on vagal mediated sympathetic stimulus resulting into reflex tachycardia, even though Epinephrine do also have effect but it causes Cardiac Arrthymia.

A question said something like more cost effective fluoride treatment – community water

During extraction more common (fracture, hemorrhage…)

Incisal guidance – Vertical and horizontal overlap

Nsaid preferred for kids – preferred nsaid for kids is Ibuprofen, if not NSAID then acetaminophen.

Nsaid who does not affect platelets – Acetaminophen, Naproxen, Celecoxib

Index of caries – DMFT (decayed missing filled tooth)

Question of periapical cemento osseos dysplasia which one is not true?

Allograft concept – this graft material is obtained from cadaver bone that is processed to ensure sterility and to decrease substances in the bone that can trigger


host immune response. However, this process destroys the osteoinductive capability of the bone, whereas the osteoconductive property of the graft remains. Although allograft avoids the need for a second surgical site, a greater amount of the grafted material is resorbed compared with autografts. Allogra materials include undecalci ed, freeze- dried bone allogra (osteoconductive material) and decalci ed, freeze- dried bone allogra (osteo- genic material owing to the presence of bone mor- phogenetic proteins that are exposed during the demineralization process).

Which is not used in cast restauration – irreversible impresiom mater?

Anug (2 quesntions, onhe for treatment and one they gave me a short description)

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. Characteristics. a. Painful, bleeding gingival tissues. b. Blunting of interproximal papillae. c. Pseudomembrane on the marginal gingiva. d. Fetid breath. e. High fever. Caused by fusiform bacilli (spirochetes) and other anaerobes. Most common in teenagers and young adults. Responds well to debridement, oxidizing mouth rinses, and antibiotics. Treatment of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis includes evaluation of the medical history, application of topical anesthetic followed by gently swabbing the necrotic lesions to remove the pseudo-membrane, and removal of local factors such as calculus (o en with ultrasonic instruments unless contraindicated by the medical history). Systemic antibiotics should be prescribed only if there is evidence of lymphadenopathy or fever. The patient should be instructed to avoid alcohol and tobacco, rinse with chlorhexidine, get adequate rest, remove bacterial plaque gently, and take an analgesic as needed for pain. Patients should return in 1 to 2 days for reevaluation and further debridement. Patient should be seen again approximately 5 days later for reevaluation; further counseling regarding diet, rest, and tobacco use; reinforcement of oral hygiene instruction (including chlorhexidine rinses); and periodontal evaluation.

116. Belladone alkaloids ( contraindications) – Belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital combination is used to treat cramping and spasms in the stomach and intestines. Contraindications: acute edema of the lungs, mechanical stenoses of GI tract, megacolon, narrow angle glaucoma, prostate adenoma and tachycardic arrhythmias.

Stridor seen in – laryngospasm

Efficacy concept – intrinsic effect

More common in men (diabetes, hemophilia, hypertension…)

What is not a benefit of ¾ crown one a Full crown – time for placement

Alveolar osteitis treatment – Analgesic, sedative dressing, no

Treatment contraindicated in trough trough furcation, – We do guided tissue regeneration for class 2 furcation… but through and through furcation either class 3 or 4 and we can’t do GTR

Least effective reducing interproximal plaque – water pick

Morphine side effects – respiratory depression, constipation, dysphoria, toxic: miosis, coma, resp

Most common reason of cardiac arrests in children: respiratory failure

Bur used to polish porcelain – diamond


Tons of questions of pulpal pathology, flaps indications and contraindications, side effects of medsGuys thanks for your everything. Some extra advice, check flaps deeply. As you can see I can’t remember to much of farma because I hadn’t too much and I’m bad on it. But about farma read about cancer treatments, radiation and biophosphanates, what meds can cause dry mouth, smoking cessation meds. I got a few ones from mdb reworded but mostly the same. I found it a good resource to practice and learn. I did Kaplan q bank and I loved it.

I got like 6 cases. One a kid with so many many meds!! He had kidney transplant. Was

11 years old. They ask me about medications he was taking and which one was causing him gingival hyperplasia. He had 170/110 of BP or something really close. They ask which of his pathologies demand send him to emergency. – cyclosporine for gingival hyperplasia and I pick BP for emergency

Another case of and old men with many heart conditions A lot of meds too. They ask me about meds and prostho and ortho I think. Not sure because I got two cases of old men. One of them had a first molar missing and second and third molar tilted to the space. They asked me what type of coast I DO NOT use on the second premolar

(20) options distal I bar, distal facial wrought wire, mesial circumferential, mesiofacial something else. Ortho question was about move molars and premolar and about them at space. What meds was causing him dry mouth.

And alcoholic case young guy. Teeth in really bad shape. Many perio questions on him about what to do in this teeth, or what not to do.

One case of 14 years old girl with canine out of arch. She was asthmatic. What angle case? What to do with canine or extract and appliance or expand or appliance? She had a first molar with deep groove and a little be dark. What to do on that molar? Sealant, amalgam, nothing…

Every single case had patient management questions. Two sentences to decide if both true, both false, first true second false, first false second true. I used a lot the highlights with the mouse to keep in mind key words.

The alcoholic patient was 18 month clean. They asked me if he was cured. They ask if for example the cardiac patient should be premeds due to.. something that doesn’t need premed although he has something else to be premeditated for. I don’t know if I’m explaning well. But they play with your mind. If you read the case and the patient has something that alerts you that ok this patient needs premedication but in the question the ask like this patient needs antibiotics due to his angina. So you have to read carefully.

I got a case of a young guy 43 years old I think. He was not happy with his teeth. He has diastema and they ask why do not close this space. Because closing diastema is hard in adults, because he has deep bite or something like that and many others options

I had that question of US population. There’s in US 55% or more women than men. More than 75% of people who lives in home care are women X percent of women after 65 are marriage… I

choose the 75% …. one because that is a big number, two because is hard to me to believe that more moms are in home care centers (dads used to behave worst ) im sorry guys I don’t know the correct answer.




K sparing drug? Spironolactone, amiloride, triamterene – K+-sparing diuretics qreduce the driving force for K+ movement into the

Virax in oral cavity? Virax (acyclovir) – Acyclovir is an antiviral agent with activity against Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV).

What procedures you cant do in AIDS patient? No prophylaxsis, because candida

4. Opiods effects: Miosis, constipation, cns depression, also respiratory depression, and ONLY MEPERIDINE mydriasis

Papoose contraindication: Long – term restraining, Mentally or physical abnormal

Battery? – treat without informed consent

Lot of prostho occlusal interference questions

Which study doesn’t show cause and effect – cross sectional, observational study

Drugs those block prostaglandins has increased effect on gastric mucosa? – Non selective COX inhibitors

Bimaxiallry protrusion – Both arch When u see facial profile lip incompetence lips strain n prominence lip profile

11. Combination syndrome: Kelly syndrome, maxillary CD opposing mand anterior natural teeth Cc:- flaby max ant bone resorption – extrusion of mand teeth. Loss of bone from the anterior part of the maxillary ridge, overgrowth of the tuberosities, papillary hyperplasia in the hard palate, extrusion of the lower anterior teeth, the loss of bone under the partial denture bases.

Characteristics of band and loop: -Doesnt prevent sobre-eruption of opposing – Its non functional

Least fracture resistant? lithium, feldpathic, zirconia – The order of chipping resistance (from least to greatest) was: feldspathic porcelain and a leucite glass ceramic (which were similar), followed by the lithium disilicate glass ceramic and the two resin composites (which were similar), and finally the zirconia which had the greatest resistance to

Pka has effect on what? Onset of Low pKa = fast onset, High pKa = slow onset

16 kg of 3 year old how many mgs LA to give? 16*4.4=70.4mg

What meds you give in osteomyelitis? Clindamicin

Patient with bizarre behavior and disorientation you give what? insulin, glucose, thyroid – disorientation and confusion most commonly indicate hypoglycemia which needs glucose

Initial stages of sedation what patient feels? Tingling of hands

19. Condensing osteitis? Excessive bone mineralization around the apex of an asymptomatic VITAL TOOTH. Radiopacity may be caused by low-grade pulp irritation. This process is asymptomatic and benign. It does not require endodontic therapy.

2 questions on Periapical Cemento osseous dysplasia – Reactive process of unknown cause that requires no treatment. Commonly seen at the apices of one or more mandibular anterior teeth. No symptoms; teeth vital. Most frequently seen in middle- aged women. Starts as circumscribed lucency, which gradually becomes opaque. An exuberant form that may involve the entire jaw is known as florid osseous dysplasia.

What cyst in roots of mandibular premolar? Traumatic bone cyst

What lesions are not radiopaque? AOT, Ameloblastic fibro odontoma


Least likely to occur? AOT, odontogenic myxoma

Which anticancer drugs has effect on folic acid? Methotrexate

Radiographic pictures Rg ameloblastic fibro odontoma – Unilocular or multilocular lucency, well-defined radiolucency often associated with an unerupted

9 year old kid swollen gingiva, recurrent skin infections: May be Impetigo, pemphigus?

What is complication of maxillary molar extractions: Sinus perforation, Fracture tubeocity

What is easily curable? macule, hematoma, …

2 questions on Incisal guidance

RPD I bar fractured what you do? – Construct a new one

What does conjugation do to a drug? – Phase II. Makes it more water soluble to enhace

Patient with flared maxillary incisors and diastemas, to improve esthetics what you evaluate first? Radiograph, Diagnose wax up, probing depth

33. Downcoding and upcoding – Down when insurance company bills your treatment to the cheaper procedure. Up – when you type your treatment to be more expensive than actual value to the insurance company.

Brown tumors: Hyperparathyroidism

Which conditions have macroglossia? Cretinism, acromegaly, beckwith – wiedeman syndrome, down syndrome,

You don’t do RCT with PA radiolucency in which patients? Diabetes?

Systemic antifungal drugs ? Fluconazole, keroconazole, amphotericin

Why do you clean tongue? esthetics, prevent odor (Halitosis. Bad breath)

What bacteria in chronic periodontitis? P gingivalis, intermediate, treponema denticolla,

Nasal obstruction what sedation you cant give? Inhalational – True nitrous contraindicate

41. Sulfonamide MOA – COMPETE with PABA to inhibit PABAs actions, which prevents bacterial folic acid synthesis to inhibit cellular growth.

Traumatic neuroma – ORAL TRAUMATIC NEUROMA – a lesion (soft tissue tumor) caused by trauma to a peripheral nerve, usually appearing as a very small nodule/swelling (O.5 cm in diameter) of the mucosa near/over the mental foramen on the alveolar ridge in edentulous areas, lips, & tongue. MOST COMMON SITE IS OVER THE MENTAL FORAMEN IN EDENTULOUS PATIENTS, but they can occur wherever a tooth has been extracted. Extraction sites in the anterior maxilla & posterior mandible are common In the oral cavity, the traumatic neuroma may be due to trauma from a surgical procedure (i.e. tooth extraction, from a local anesthetic injection, or accident). A nodule or swelling PAINFUL WHEN PALPATED, as applied digital pressure elicits a response described as an “electric shock”. Multiple neuromas on the lips, tongue, or palate may indicate the patient may have MEN III (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome). Treatment: surgical excision of the nodule with small proximal portion of the involved nerve. Recurrence is uncommon.

Patient wore denture for 10 years and there is 6*3 white lesion on buccal of mandible? Biopsy, or observe – Any lesion red or white doesn’t go away for 2 weeks we should do biopsy.

44. Treatment of concussion? Baseline vitality tests and radiographs. Occlusal adjustment. No immediate treatment is needed. Let the tooth “rest” (avoid bite), then follow-up.


Primary maxillary incisors intruded 5mm what you do? On 2-3mm we were waiting to reerupt, so probably in younger patients reposition, older like above 5y/o

Radiolucency in primary molar furcation area? Pulpectomy – If 1st molar extraction

Most common caries location? Pits and fissure

Features of arrested caries? Hard, dark, shiny

Composite characteristics? Rough, glass filler

Opaque porcelain features? Mask the metal and provide chemical bonding with metal

Phelobith location? nerve, vein (I assume phlebitis) – Phlebolith is a Calcification in a vein

Lefort 3 fracture what side gaze is limited to? Laterally, medial or downward – LeFORT III (Transverse Fracture or Craniofacial Oysfunction)-a fracture in which the entire maxilla and one or more facial bones are completely separated from the craniofacial skeleton . These patients have restricted mandibular (nasoethmoidal)

LeFORT II (Pyramidal Fracture)- a unilateral or bilateral fracture of the maxilla in which the body of the maxilla is separated from the facial skeleton and the separated portion is pyramidal- shaped. Signs: periorbital edema, ecchymosis, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and nose bleeding. A common finding is paresthesia over the distribution of the infraorbital nerve. (Zygomaticomaxillary)

Lefort 1? LeFORT I (Horizontal Fracture} – a horizontal segmented fracture of the alveolar process of the maxilla in which the teeth are usually contained in the detached portion of the bone, causing an OPEN BITE. A LeFort I osteotomy is most commonly used to correct maxillary (intramaxillary)

Axillary freckling seen in? Nerofibromatosis

Radiographic image of lateral wall of nasal fossa

radiographic is too light? Why? – may be too old solution

If you take radiograph 10 Ma with 1 sec exposure and you take another x ray with 0.5 sec what mA will you give to get same density radiograph? 5, 10 or 20 –

qmAs = mA X time (sec) 10= x. 0.5 x=10/0.5 x = 20

Serpentile something feature? migratory glossitis – (Geographic tongue)

HIV infection feature? I put Usually asymptomatic in initial stages (lymphocytes reduction)

Normal skeletal and class 3 dental what could be the reason? Loss of primary mandibular 1st molar or incisor crowding or thumb sucking

3mm lack of mandibular arch how you treat? Disk distal of molar, I put lingual arch and observe

Max 2nd molar less keratinized tissue, which graft will you give? – lateral /pedicle flape?

Most common crown root fracture tooth – max anterior

Primary mandibular 2nd resembles to? Permanent first

If you have ledge while doing RCT what you do? Bypass with smaller instrument

Access opening of Mandibular molar? Trapezoidal

Modified widman flap? Full thickness 3 incisions used to expose bone defects

When we don’t do gingivectomy? (aka gingivectomy contraindication) Bone surgery needed, inadequate attached gingiva, apical to the mucoging junction

Mouth breather features? class 2 occlusion, adenoid facies, open bite, dry perioral tissues.

7-8 questions on studies


2 questions on OSHA

Which study FDA do to check drugs? Randomized clinical

4 questions desensitization kind of

Behavior shaping question, patient say I don’t wanna quit smoking? precontemplation stage – The behavioral change process occurs in several a. Precontemplation — an individual is not considering a behavior change. Contemplation — an individual begins to consider a behavior change. Preparation

— preparing to take steps to change (o en expresses a desire to change a behavior). Action — an individual is engaged in taking action toward behavior change (o en requires support for his or her e orts). Maintenance — an individual attempts to maintain a changed behavior.

Eg of secondary prevention? Amalgam and composite restorations – Secondary prevention is the elimination or reduction of a disease after it occurs. An amalgam restoration is considered secondary prevention because tooth decay is removed and a restoration is

Where you give General ? 2 year old kid needs lot of restoration

Most common periodontal failure? Max PM, Max molar, Mand PM, and Mand molars

– max molars due to trifurcation

Twisted questions on Meperidine and MOA read it carefully – a. Can be used orally. More potent than codeine but less potent than morphine. A metabolite, normeperidine, is a CNS stimulant. Not recommended for long-term pain relief. Contraindicated with MAO inhibitors. t1/2 ~ 3 hours. – MEPERIDINE (DEMEROL) – a SYNTHETIC narcotic (opioid) agonist that is weaker than morphine, but equally addictive. It’s duration of action is shorter than morphine, and it is the only narcotic agent that does NOT cause miosis (pupillary constriction). Demerol is used as an IV supplement during conscious sedation procedures, but is less potent than morphine and much less potent than fentanyl. Demerol is also used as an oral medication to control pain after dental surgery. Oemerol treats moderate- to-severe pain (acute dental pain) and may be used as a preoperative medication to relieve pain and allay anxiety. Length of Effectiveness: IV or 1M (3hrs) and not very effective given orally. When combined with promethazine it is know as Mepergan Fortis.

Meperidine can cause seizures, tremors, and muscle spasms. Synthetic Meperidine Oerivatives: Fentanyl (Sublimaze) – a synthetic potent opioid analgesic used primarily as an IV sedative during conscious sedation procedures or procedures requiring general anesthesia. It is 80-1OOx more potent than morphine.

What pain killer drug is safe in pregnant patient? tylenol

When does dental lamina starts? 2 weeks of utero, 6 weeks, 12, 10

What stage supernumerary occurs? initiation, histo, apposition

What % of community water fluoridation? 74% – Mosby

Mechanism of fluoride? options weren’t the regular one we read, very twisted terms they used – Topical effect of constant infusion of a low fluoride concentration into the oral cavity = enamel remineralization. Fluoride converts hydroxyapatite fluorapatite by substituting OH’ for Fl’. Fl decreases the solubility of hydroxyapatite crystal, while increasing the crystal size. Fluoride ion is easily exchanged with the hydroxyl ion in the lattice structure of enamel because FI is slightly smaller than OH- with a greater affinity for hydroxyapatite crystals than OH-. Fluoride inhibits glycolysis where sugar is converted into acid by bacteria (fluoride ion inhibits enzymatic production of glucosyltransferase).


Multiple myeloma feature? bone pain? Yes, first sign, Punch out lesion, Bence jhon proteins,

2 question on best bone for implant? Type 1

What is implant abutment? it is connecting element b/w crown and implant fixture

You making FPD and you see 1 prosthesis in Radiograph is completely seating on implant what you do? Screw the implant, take another RG, section the FPD

Disadvantages of cemented implant restoration? need more occlusal space

Fearful patient how do you respond? gradual desensitisation

90. Leading question, open ended and reassurance ? leading question: you are not affraid, do you? (not recomendable to use) – open ended: how are you feeling? (let the pt to communicate and its the best choice – reassurance: what advantages or disadvantages do you see in tx plan? (making sure pt understood).

Modeling in fearful kid ? let another person to show him who to behave, like brother or stuuf

Buccal limitation of mandibular denture – masseter

Lingual limitation of Mandibular denture? Genioglossus, Frenum, Mylohyoid, Sup constrictor, Platoglossus

ANUG resembles what? I put herpetic stomatitis – recurrent herpes-stomatitis mimicking acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG).

When do you do elective RCT?

Lefort 1 includes what structure? Maxilla, hard palate, there is a sign of bilateral hematoma on palate = guerin sign

Smokeless tobacco causes what? Leukoplakia – verrucus carcinoma

Max anterior teeth placed too superior and too anterior what sound will affect? F and v

When you make rest on molar you make rest deep enough in marginal ridge, buccal incline, lingual? – yes 5mm

What is not included in the consent? Cost

Epinephrine contraindicated in thyroid? in hyperthyroidsm yes

(Few questions on some recent study questions. Never heard and don’t remember)

Dental hygienist and 3 doctors in practice, dental hygienist screwed the case who will be legally blamed? dental hygenist and the doctor “supervising”

Abcess include marginal and interproximal gingiva called? Gingival abscess, pericoronal, periapical

What is the indication of half erupted third molar in 18 years old? dental hygenist and the doctor “supervising”

Another question on complication of maxillary molar extraction: 1st molar root in sinus, 2nd molar related with maxillary tuberosity

You can avoid ledge if canal is: Small, large, short or curved – short less incidence of ledge and long more incidence

External bevel incision? gingivectomy

Ear pain refer to? Mandible molars

Lots of pharma questions

An athlete having pain and soreness on tmj when he wake up? MPDS – myofacial pain. Myofascial Pain Dysfunction (MPD) Syndrome-the most common cause of TMJ pain. It is a disease primarily involving the muscles of mastication. MPD often responds to an acrylic night guard (occlusal separator or occlusal appliance)


along with a soft diet, limited talking, and elimination of gum chewing. Moist heat applied to the face and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents are also helpful during the acute phase.

Sublingual varicosities? Twisted options – age

Radiograph of dentigerous cyst – Dentigerous Cysts (Primordial or Follicular Cysts)-cysts associated with the crowns of unerupted teeth, probably the result of degenerative changes in the reduced enamel epithelium. Well-defined usually unilocular

Distance between two implants: 3 mm

# of granulocyte for surgery? 1500 – Any ANC < 1500 cells / mm3 is considered neutropenia, but <500 cells / mm3 is considered severe – For platelet 50.000 in dd surgery

Periodontitis common in? African American, males

Nursing bottle caries? Options were so new and confusing never heard before sorry don’t remember – Max incisors and molars, mandibular protected by

Early childhood caries – ECC: definition by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD)—the presence of more than one decayed (noncavitated or cavitated), missing (owing to decay), or filled tooth surface in any primary tooth in a child younger than 6.

Severe ECC: a. Younger than 3 years—any sign of smooth surface decay. b. Ages 3 to 5.

One or more cavitated, missing (owing to caries), or filled smooth surface in primary maxillary anterior teeth. (2) A decayed, missing, or filled surface (DMFS) score of greater than 4 (age 3), greater than 5 (age 4), or greater than 6 (age 5). Previously termed “baby bottle syndrome” or “nursing bottle caries.” Typical presentation of “baby bottle syndrome.” a. Caries are present on maxillary anterior teeth and primary molars. The mandibular incisors are unaffected because of the tongue covering these teeth during feeding. History often reveals that the child is consistently put to bed with a nursing bottle containing milk or a sugar-containing drink. AAPD recommendations. a. Infants should not be put to sleep with a bottle. Ad libitum nocturnal breast-feeding should be avoided after the first primary tooth begins to erupt. Parents should be encouraged to have infants drink from a cup as they approach their first birthday. Infants should be weaned from the bottle at 12 to 18 months of age. Repetitive consumption of any liquid containing fermentable carbohydrates from a bottle or no-spill training cup should be avoided. Oral hygiene measures should be implemented by the time of eruption of the 1rst primary An oral health consultation visit within 6 months of eruption of the 1rst tooth and no later than 12 months of age is recommended to educate parents and provide anticipatory guidance for prevention of dental disease. An attempt should be made to assess and decrease the mother’s or primary caregiver’s Streptococcus mutans levels to decrease the transmission of car- iogenic bacteria and lessen the infant’s or child’s risk of developing ECC. In children younger than 2 with moderate to high caries risk, a smear of fluoridated toothpaste should be used. All children age 2 to 5 should use a pea sized amount of fluoridated toothpaste.

Oral infections in what leukemia: Chronic Monocytic Leukemia

Treatment of ranula? Enucleation, If recurrence removal of gland

What is mucocele? Stupid options extravasation of fluid, common in lower lip, due to trauma to ducts of minor salivary

Too deep PPS (Posterior palatal seal)? I put Gag – also unseated of denture


Beta 1 selective actions – decrease heart rate

Some medicine name I don’t remember, it was something like, given in lung patients for better functions and improve asthmatic effects. Mechanism of it? theophilline? albutamol? salbuterol? montelukast?

LA mechanism include all except? Read everything about it

Exhale wheezing sign of what? wheezing on expiration is asthma

Montelukast drug moa? Block the action of leukotrienes – leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal


Dentures major connector function Where to place rest? Stability and rigidity, on marginal ridge

What happen if temp of developing solution is too high ? Dark image

Inc water:powder ratio in gypsum does what? Increases working/setting time, Decreased setting expansion, decreases strength – The increase in water:power ratio decreases the number of nuclei of crystallization per unit volume and increases the amount of space between crystalizing nuclei, thus increasing porosity when

Which bur is not good for porcelain?

Most porcelain liable to fracture: a.PFM b.zirconia c. pressed leucite, d.silicate core

Common between gardener and peutz — a polyps b odoronta c pigmentation

Epinephrine inc anxiety? yes, anxiety has elevated HR and epinephrine can make the feeling worst

Cevimeline – For treatment of xerostomia

Russell bodies – multiple myeloma

Sarcoidosis resemble – tb

Can we give chlorhexidine to ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

child ? no

Pigeon chest seen in? Rickets – Pectus carinatum can also be caused by vitamin D deficiency in children (Rickets) due to deposition of unmineralized

Bond strength and more lasting of resin is more in: Dentin Enamel Both

Rifampin is contradicted to pregnant women? yes or no

Sodium hypochlorite properties: No chelating, Removes organic material

Tooth most involved in vertical root fracture: Max. 1st premolar..for sure..Guys ivertical root

Part of facial nerve affected during TMJ pain: temporal, masseter zygomatic cervical

Pemphigoid and pemphigous difference: Pemphigus- nikolsky sign and suprabasilar cleft / Pephigoid – subbasilar cleft

What flow of saliva affects denture from seating – Thick

What would reverse LA: Phentolamine (non selective alpha blocker), its A alpha adr antagonist

Tricyclic antidepressants  inhibits:  drugs  of  FIRST  choice  to  treat  UNIPOLAR DISORDER (depression). Tricyclics inhibit neuronal reuptake of NE & Serotonin (5-HT) in the brain, which results in potentiation of their neurotransmitter actions at post- synaptic

Patient has PFM crowns and amalgam restoration, apply:

1% (not sure) neutral sodium fluoride – 2% of naf, ph= 9.2


What not to do in veneer:

try in paste for shade

apply silane to inner surface apply bonding agent

etch enamel with hydroflouric acid

Recent research shows the relationship between periodontal disease and:

cardiovascular disease

Xerostomia causes all of the following except:

A.smooth surface caries B.candiosis C.leukoplakia

D.salivary gland infection

Pulpal anesthesia – Back pressure

Primary teeth with occlusal convergence – Max first molar

Short crown resistance and retention – Buccal groove

Xerostomia drug receptor: muscarinic

HIV patient prophylaxis which we cant do: Candida prophylaxis

White lesion on 75 yr old pt, from 19 years, what to do? Biopsy or cytology?

Relining and Observe

Filler disadvantage – Difficulty in polishing, decrease esthetics also

Bur for porcelin cutting: Diamond burs

Retentive arm where angaged – At the infrabulge area

Best material for cervical lesion – GIC

Occlusal rest: On marginal ridge for support

Orthodontic treatment consequences: Resorption

165.                     Systemic desensitization: teaches the person to replace the feelings of anxiety with feelings of relaxation when the object or behavior is present.

Precontempling: Pt not willing to quit the habit

Which changes in lingual papillae results in Benign Migrating Glossitis (aka: geographic tongue)? a) atrophy filiform b) hypertrophy filiformc) atrophy fungiform d) hypertrophy fungiform

Treatment for Benign Migratory Glossitis: Perform Biopsy b. Administer Topical Corticosteroids c. Reassure the patient that no treatment is required d. Administer antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin(Cipro) for 10 days.

An ameloblastoma is most likely to develop in the wall of a dentigerous

Sequence treatment: Endo, perio, operative, surgery and ortho


Radiographic appearances:

Ground Glass appearance–> Fibrous dysplasia

Punched out radiolucencies–> Multiple Myeloma 3-Cotton Wool Appearance–> Paget’s Dz

Tooth Floating in Air–> Eiosinophilic Granuloma

Snow Appearance–> Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor(CEOT) 6-Honey Comb Appearance–> Odontogentic Myxoma

7-Soap Bubble Appearance–> Aneurysmal Bone Cyst, Cherubism 8-Scooped out radiolucencies at mid root level–> Histiocytosis X

Scalloped radiolucencies around the roots of teeth–> Simple bone cyst aka traumatic bone cyst


Beaten Metal appearance on the skull–> Crouzon Syndrome 11-Enlarged marrow spaces–> Sickle cell Anemia

13-Widened PDL with dissolving bone–> Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 14-Moth-Eaten radiolucency–> external resorption

Salt and pepper appearance radio-graphically-COC 16.Gosth teeth appearance- Regional Odontodisplasia

Hair on end -Thalassemia 19.Cherry blossom- Sjogren syndrome 20.Sunburst pattern- osteosarcoma

Abnormal widening of PDL – scleroderma and osteosarcoma

Teeth floating in space – hand shuller chrestien


Sukh Singh’s RQs (JUNE 2015)


Lots of questions on pt

Fluoride supplement for 7 year old with no fluoridation in water = 0mg/day


9 year old lost 2nd With space maintainer. = 9 yrs no premolars if so, band and loop

Antibiotics and their side Which was not matched correctly.

Which of  following  antibiotic  use  is  restricted  due  to  its  side  effect:  tetracyclin, chloroamphenicol, PNC, cephalexin = Chloroamphenicol, causes aplastic anemia

Pt allergic to both ester and Amine which LA would you use: Diphenhydramine can be used as an alternative to ester and amide local anesthetics in minor procedures of short

Prilocaine causes methemoglobinemia = Oxidizing agents such as prilocaine are the most common cause of acquired toxic

Epinepherin in 1.8, 2% 1:100k.

Now working and working incline

What is the important factor when reducing a Outline form, retention form,

resistance form or convinence

Medazolam overdose, which drug u give = Flumazenil – Flumazenil (Mazicon), a benzodiazepine antagonist, used to reverse effect of benzodiazepines in the event of an

Contraindication of nitrous sedation: Head injury, bowel obstruction, pneumothorax,


middle ear and sinus infections, COPD (emphysema or bronchitis – NOT ASTHMA, there ARE NOT contraindications for the use of nitrous oxide sedation in asthmatic patients), first trimester of pregnancy, with whom communication is difficult (autistic patients), having a contagious disease since it is difficult to sterilize entire tubes.

Patient has Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) bronj and bone is exposed, what is treatment? A) hyperbaric oxygen, B) sc/rp C) chlorhexidine rinse and oral antibiotics D) ALL

14.  Best test to determine a irreversible pulpitis – Thermal, cold test both reversible n irreversible will show response but the diff is that if the stimuli is removed pain is subsided within 5sec fr reversible. Cold test-lingering pain 15sec / Heat test to differentiate from reversible.

How would you differentiate between a reversible pulpitis and periodontal lesions =

Pulp vitality test

How would you treat necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with no obvious systemic symptoms – NUG: Tissue debridement with topical or local anesthetic, rinsing with chlorhexidine or diluted hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) and oral hygiene. If systemic: antibiotic therapy with metronidazole or

Focal distance increased from 8 to 16 Howard that intensify = Intensity = 1/4 of distance. So when distance increases, intensity

I1 = D2 I1 = (16)2           256/64=4      4 TIMES DECREASED I2           D1

Side effects of corticosteroids: Clouding of the lens in one or both eyes (cataracts)High blood sugar, which can trigger or worsen diabetes, Increased risk of infectionsThinning bones (osteoporosis) and fractures, Suppressed adrenal gland hormone production.

Doing composite restoration you have 1 mm of remaining dentin thickness what would you use for lining if any = glass ionomer cement for greater than 5 mm


Best restorative material for 13-year-old with posterior small occlusal caries not involving interproximal

Main cause of alveolar osteitis (dry socket): Thought to develop because of increasefibrinolytic activity causing accelerated lysis of the blood clot – Fibrinolysis of clot

Main sign or symptom associated with dry The patient develops severe, dull, throbbing pain 2 to 4 days after a tooth extraction. The pain is often excruciating, may


radiate to the ear, and is not relieved by oral analgesics. (Dull throbbing pain, foul smell, slough).

How convulsions are managed in dental setting: Secure the patient and avoid injuries, proper

Difference between fear and

Pt with folded arms and looking down what do u

Child gets their dexterity by what age to brush unassisted: This is an adult No child has adequate dexterity for brushing teeth until age 6-9(average 7) yrs and flossing 10 years. Tooth brush dexterity 7 yrs.

Systemic fluoride won’t benefit which tissue- root, occlusal, inter-proximal, smooth surface.

28.  Main  features  of  achondroplasia:  ACHONDROPLASIA-the  most  common  type  of DWARFISM. Clinically, the child appears very short (around 50 inches), fingers are stubby, bowed legs, bulging of the forehead, bossing of the frontal bones, saddle-like nose, and mandibular prognathism.

Which is not important about designing tx plan for frail woman – age, dexterity, previous dental tx, ability to

5-2.5 year child more prone to injuries due to: accidental prone, Overprotective parent. Abuse. No fully coordinated development.

pt in for #8 crown. Missing 1-4 and 12-16. How would u record occlusion: Old dentarecords

5 year old cavity prep, Haitian accidentally exposures mesiobuccal I’ll come on what is the best course tx. Options were pulotomy with stainless steel crown, Pulp With calcium hydroxide followed by stainless steel crown, root canal treatment – (DPC is a relative contraindication in primary tooth)

12-year-old patient who had crown fracture with exposed pulp comes the following day. For treatment, what is the best treatment: In young patients with immature, still developing teeth it is advantageous to preserve pulp vitality by pulp capping or partial Also, this treatment is the choice in young patients with completely formed teeth. Calcium hydroxide is a suitable material to be placed on the pulp wound in such procedures.

A nine-year-old child suffering from some spontaneous pain on primary molar, it is determined and this is non-vital what is the best treatment for that tooth: pulpectomy- keep it as a space maintainer

Two points of Frankford plane-Porion to orbitale

Minimum distance of the implant two vital tissue: Generally Implant is placed at least 2mm away from any vital structure and min 5 mm ANTERIOR to mental foramen because of anterior loop on inferior alveolar nerve

Order of treatment for mild to moderate chronic periodontitis: Mild: oral hygiene instructions, moderate: scaling and root planning

Minimal interval for Perio therapy. 1 month. 3 month 6 month 12 month. After periodontal treatment, the first recall visit should be scheduled at 3 months. With excellent plaque control and maintenance of periodontal health, the interval can be lengthened to 4-6

Questions on OSHA and their standards for blood

Questions on ethic principle, justice, non-malevolence, veracity, and beneficence.

Phases of periodontal therapy

Couple question on sensitivity and specificity of the disease: Sensitivity & Specificity


are INVERSELY proportional. As the specificity of a test increases, the sensitivity decreases. Sensitivity: ability of the test to diagnose correctly a condition or disease that actually exists. Sensitivity measures the proportion of people with a disease who are correctly identified by a positive test. Sensitivity is defined as the number of true positives (TP) divided by total number of potential positive findings (true positives and false negatives) in the sample. Sensitivity = TP/TP + FN.

Specificity: ability of the test to classify health. Specificity is defined by the number of trunegative (TN) results divided by the total number of false positive (FP) + true negative (TN) results in a sample. Specificity = TN/FP + TN.

Question on type of studies for example case control randomized controlled

Few questions on chroma, Hue, value

Which is not risk factors of oral cancer: HIV, smoking, alcohol, HPV.

If a patient has an adverse reaction to medication who do you report to CDC, FDA, OSHA,

47.  Epstein-Barr virus is associated with what: BURKITT’S LYMPHOMA, Epstein-Barr Virus is also associated with infectious mononucleosis, & orally hairy leukoplakia. In Africa, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to Burkitt lymphoma, as well as to a form of acute lymphocytic leukemia. In the United States, EBV most often causes infectious mononucleosis (“mono”).

Oral Hair leukoplakia is most commonly found which which disease: HIV

Malignant carcinoma is associated with which gland parotid, sublingual, submandibular, minor oral salivary gland: Most series report that about 80% of parotid neoplasms are benign, with the relative proportion of malignancy increasing in the smaller

Frequency of cleft lip and palate in Caucasian

Which race is associated with occlusal caries white, blacks, Native Americans, Hispanic.

Length of manual toothbrush can penetrate sulcus close compared to floss

Which would be least effective and cleaning furcation, toothpick, soft brush, water pick, interdental brushes

Another few questions and furcation

Least favorable solvent to store avulsed Milk, saliva, water Hans solution.

Extraction order of maxillary posterior teeth: 3rd molar, 2nd molar, 1st molar

Extraction of manibular third molars in association with IAN canal

Which structure is least likely to show on intro oral radiographs Mundibular foramen, mental foramen, hamulus

Which radiograph is best to evaluate bone loss: Bitewing – Periapical Film- film of choice to evaluate root surfaces, supporting bone, and PDL space (not for occlusal or proximal caries).

Supernumeraries occur at which stage- initation.

Best test for patient with Inr, PT time etc.

Questions  on   adrenal   crisis.   Addison’s   Disease-caused   by   HYPOSECRETION   of aldosterone & cortisol. For adrenal crisis, treat with 2ml of cortisol (hydrocortisone) . Corticosteroids represent replacement only in Addison’s

Question bout space between palate and the metal frame try in but good fit on master What’s the reason. Shirnkage of alloy, distortion of master impression etc.

Space maintenance on pt missing mans lateral in overall spaced dentition

Indication for 3rd molar


Pain on biting and eating. Thermal and ept test normal. Sharp pain on MB cusp only and fine with biting on other – Fracture off mb cusp

Question bout crown

Most etiological factor for progression it periodontitis. Calculus, bacteria/biofilm Etiological: plaque( bac) – Contributing :calculus

Max denture extended to far buccally will get interference from- coronid

Soft tissue transillumination in young child to see. Siolathasis, leukemia, herpetic gingivistomatitis one more option I

Caries start Pits fissure, interproximally. Above contact point. Below contact point.

Which is not important when determine caries rate. Oral hygiene, frequency of carbohydrate, quantity of carbohydrates. Amount of cariogenic

Cervical cavity prep. Kidney shaped

How to test the root Softness, dicolouration. Two more options.

75.  Auriculotemporal nerve damage consequences. FREY’S SYNDROME (AURICULOTEMPORAL SYNDROME) – an unusual/uncommon phenomenon that arises due to damage of the auriculotemporal nerve and subsequent reinnervation of the sweat glands by parasympathetic salivary fibers. Frey’s syndrome can occur after surgery (i.e. removal of a parotid tumor, ramus of the mandible, or infection of the parotid that has damaged the auriculotemporal nerve (branch of V3). Gustatory sweating (sudoracion gustative) is the chief complaint. Patient exhibits flushing and sweating of the involved side of the face during eating.

Which is the antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with allergic to penicillin- Clindamycin

Drug that not reduce saliva. Propanol, atropine, scopolamine and one more which is similar to atropine

Most common type of Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis osteoporosis

Bout mandibular fracture and displacement: Fracture of angle of mandible displacein which direction in edentuluous pt: Anterior and superior

Best test for pt on coumarin PT – INR

Facial height is divided into 3rds, 1/2,

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