QUESTION: complementary color used to change
Answer- Orange stain is the most often used to change the HUE. Staining a porcelain restoration
will reduce the VALUE (aswill using a complementary color). It is almost impossible to increase
QUESTION: If you add a complementary color yellow, what happens to the hue?
answer- Decrease red content of yellow red shade.
Side note: adding yellow stain=Inc chroma of basic yellow shade Pink purple makes yellow
QUESTION:Which represents position on the spectral wavelength?
Answer-hue denotes the specific wavelength of light .
Notes- it should be in hormony with the patient’s skin color or else it produce an artificial look on teeth.
QUESTION: what is best way to determine value?
answer- open eye as wide as you can, arrange the shade guide in increasing value .
The canines are a good reference point in selecting a shade because they have the highest chroma
(intensity) of the dominate hue (color) of the teeth..
When making shade selections it is important not to view the comparison for more than 7
seconds at a time to avoid fatiguing the cones of the retina. We recommend you gaze at a neutral
grey wall card. In fact, looking away at a grey card between each 7-second shade evaluation will
reset the focus of your eyes and depth perception.
question:How pick shade or value?
answer- Most important, Lightness. Put shade guide from light to dark. Half close eyes to
increase sensitivity to better select value. Squint test for chroma.
Notes-squint test-it is used to check and compare the color of the teeth with the color of the face .
the dentist should partially close his eyes to reduce light and compare artificial teeth of different
shades with the colour of the face and teet. The colour of the teeth that fades first from view is
least conspicuous (contrasting) to the colour of the face.
Question:in order to prevent metamerism , which of the following a dentist should do?
• Use a consistent look in light.
• Shade under multiple light sources.
answer: Shade under multiple light sources.
notes-Metamerism is a complication in color perception as various light sources produce
different perceptions of color. It will create problems in shade selection.(or) Metamerism is the
phenomenon inwhich a color match under a lighting condition appears different under a different
question:FUNCTIONAL/NON FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENTS
Answer-non working LUBL
Non working = BULL incline
No work–>lower lingual
question-Centric Relation and Centric Occlusion?
Answer-centric relation=the most anterior and superior position of the mandibular condyles
within glenoid fossa (ligamnet guided position).
Centric occlusion=maximum intercusspation of opposing arches(tooth guided)* this creates
QUESTION: Non-working movement, which one is true?
answer- Lingual cusps of upper molars hit lingual inclines of facial cusps of mandibular molars
QUESTION: Contact on lingual portion of buccal cusp of mandibular molar ,what kind of
Answer =non working
Doudt Question:wear facets on lingual inclines of maxillary lingual cusp and facial inclines of
mandibular facial cusp on left side?
• Left working interface
• Protrusive interface
• Right non working interface• Left working interface
Answer-right non-working interference or left working interface
According to this left working
-Right Non-working interference…. because those aforementioned inclines are involved in the
left laterotrusive (working) and right mediotrusive (balancing/non-working) interference, as
shown in the image. The inclines involved in protrusive interference are always mesial and distal
QUESTION: Wear on buccal of maxillary premolars due to, due to mandibular movement?
question: When will the BULL rule be utilized with the selective grinding
a. working side
b. balance side
c. protrusive movement
d. all of the above
question:The mesiobuccal incline on the mesiobuccal cusp of mand molar has wear: this is
because of movement in which direction(s) !!!
1. Working and protrusive movement
2. Non working and protrusive movement
3. None of the above
Answer- working and protrusive movements.(when u move to the working side the MB cusp if
man 1st molar will get in contact with the distal incline of the buccal cusp of the maxillary 2nd
question:Tooth 30 gold crown has wear located on the MB cusp of the MB incline, cause –A. protrusive and working side movement
B. protrusive and non-working side movement
C. only protrusive
D. Non-working side movement
answer-protrusive and working side movement
question:Max molar on mesial slope of mesial lingual cusp where do you have wear on lower
answer: Distal incline of midfacial cusp
question:The mesial angle of the ML of max 2nd molar occludes with what on the man 2nd
a. Mesial MB cusp
b. Distal MB cusp
c. Mesial DB cusp
d. Distal DB cusp
answer-b. Distal MB cusp
QUESTION: Pt bites down after cementing down and deviates to the right #30
answer-Lingual incline of the buccal cusp
QUESTION: Crown on number 30, pt tries to close, contact interference deviates to left,
answer-buccal incline of the lingual cusp
QUESTION: In restoring a canine protected occlusion, with anterior overbite of about 2mm. The
buccal cusps of posterior teeth should be flat, BECAUSE they will guide the protrusion.
a. both are true
b. only the second statement is true
c. both are false
Answer-both false(flat teeth cant guide occlusion and anyways its canine protected.. so canines
will guide eccentric movements)
notes-anything away from centric is eccentric (protrusive included).. but anteriors and condylar
guidance play a bigger role in protrusion, if Canines are removed. And nothing changes then rest
of the anteriors guide it.. if canine protected is impaired due to some restoration e.g. Crown then
it might become a group function
QUESTION: what kind of occlusion is if in right lateral movement all posterior teeth are not in
occlusion?Answer- canine guidence
QUESTION: which of the following would result in inaccurate terminal hinge record?
acutely apprehensive patient,
severe skeletal cl III,
answer-1 and myospasm or joint pathosis in TMJ (4), but not just any muscle pain, so only 1.
doudtQUESTION: IF you are making a crown but before you begin, when you do equilibration,
what are you trying to achieve to get rid of the non-working interference?
QUESTION: You have a patient who wants an all porcelain on number 8 – the incisal edge keeps
breaking off and u have to come in to repair, why does it keep breaking off?
Because the anterior 43 guidance and the protrusive movements.
QUESTION: Where to the condyles go in CR?
QUESTION: Which anatomical components are responsible for rotation of the mandible?
Answer-articular disc and condyle(hinge movenment)
QUESTION: If you both condyle break, what you get?
Answer-posterior open bite
QUESTION: Dislocation of condy
Answer-deviates same side
QUESTION: What is Bennett angle?
a. it is the angle that is formed by the non-working condyle and the sagittal plane during lateral
b. it is the angle that is formed by the condyle and the horizontal nansnnplane during protrusive
c. It is an difference in condylar inclination between protrusive and lateral movements
d. It is the difference between in the condylar and incisal inclinations
answer-a. it is the angle that is formed by the non-working condyle and the sagittal plane during
QUESTION: bennett shift
Answer-working side condyle bodily shifts laterally(towards working side)
question-Transillumination is useful in the diagnosis of :
1) Class I cavity
2) Class II
3) Class III
4) Class V
QUESTION: What do u place on a 75 yo patient with like 8 class v carious lesions?
QUESTION: Class V lesions?
answer-RMGI widely used in class-5 lesions
Doudt QUESTION: #5 cervical lesion Class V what do you need to consider?
QUESTION: Class V onto root?
90 butt margin on cementum
QUESTION: What is not an indication for restoring class V abrafaction?
c. prevention of decay,
d. prevention of further structure loss,
e. restoring physiological contour
QUESTION: Too light on class v composite, how would u treat?
QUESTION: if a class IV is too light what to do? Or Class IV composite, notice it is too light 2
weeks later. ?
QUESTION: If a dentist notices that a large but acceptable composite is too light a few weeks
after placing it, what should he do?
if patient insists Removal of the superficial layer n restoring it with lighter shade can work too
without disturbing the whole restorationQUESTION: class 3 extends to facial. The restoration is pigmented but margins are perfectly
sealed, however they have bad color. What should you do?
answer-remove 1mm prep and add more composite
QUESTION: Recently placed a class 3 comp, pt isn’t happy with it and has a huge staining on
margins what to do?
remove on margins and place composite,
questio;After caries removal sound tissue is on cementum. How do you restore?
According to dd -restore it with GIC,
QUESTION: Prep you did went down to cementum , what do you do to fill it:?
rmgi than composite on top
question:subgingival composite where cementum is exposed. What type suld you place?
Fluoride releasing composite
use GI and then composite-answer
question-Class 3 composite w/ radiolucency under it. This could be due to All of the condition
except one. Which of the following is the exception?
B) recurrent caries.
C) contraction from shrinkage of curing.
D) None of the above.
Answer- contraction from shrinkage of curing
QUESTION: MOD amalgam that passes the 1/3 distance of cusp height, do what ?
Answer-mod onlay( Inlay is also limited to 1/3rd. Onlay will protect the weakened tooth)
question;Indirect composite inlay has the following advantages over the directcomposite
a. Efficient polymerization.
b. Good contact proximally.
c. Gingival seal.
d. Good retention/
notes-The line angles are converging towards gingival floor in inlay and diverging in case of
direct restoration. The resistance will be fine but retention will be low due to obtuse line angles
in proximal box.That’s why usual point of breakage is the isthmus between dove tail and
proximal box due to outward directed forces.
In direct restorations, the gingival floor in proximal box is made reclining or the axial lines
angles are acute due to which proximal box is self retentive and not relying on the dove tail for
retention. While in indirect restoration, to be able to place cured ingut in the prepared cavity, the axial line angles are obtuse, hence retention comes from.the dove tail, the weakest part of which
is the isthmus.
QUESTION: Most important factor when placing a composite in post teeth?
QUESTION: You place a conservative composite on a posterior tooth and the patient returns due
to sensitivity. What is the most likely reason?
A. Putting large amount of comp while filling,
C. trauma to dentin during preparation,
D. Etch causing pulpal pain,
answer-shrinkage occurs with most of composite restoration even minor degrees because of
factor C ,then if bacteria enter and leakage it’s then considered failure
With other options can be higher occlusion(Failure decay, microleakage 2-Sensitivity occlusion,
QUESTION: Most common reason for replacing posterior composites?
fracture of composite
(ONLINE SAYS: The two main causes of posterior composite restoration failure are secondary
caries and fracture (restoration or tooth)
QUESTION: After placing a crown with composite resin, after six month around the porceline
gingiva there is a discoloration ( brown color) what is the cause: ?
question:How long have to wait after bleaching to do a composite on an anterior tooth
A one week
B two weeks
C three weeks
D four weeks
QUESTION: Why do you bevel when placing anterior composite?
answer-Beveling does everything except strong margin in composite
QUESTION: why do we bevel cavosurface of composite?
1. For more surface area
question:Which one is not reason for post-op sensitivity Class I comp?
cusp deformation due to shrinkage force,
Gap for microbes,
Gap for leakage and movement of fluid from pulp outwards,
Direct contact of etchant and bonding to pulp
answer- cusp deformation due to shrinkage force(bcs of C factor, remember that in class 1 we
have the most shrinkage force. Bcs of acid-etch bonding micro leakage is minimum right after
QUESTION: Restore tooth with MOD comp. then pt. comes back 2 days later with sensitivity.
Then you put composite over it and relieves the pain. What is reason?
answer-Creates better seal and helps reduce marginal microleakage
question-Post operative sensitivity following placement of composite, which is the least likely
1. Shrinkage allowing fluid in dentinal tubules
2.Shrinkage allowing bacteria to get in and cause sensitivity
3. Acid in the etchant material causing pulpal sensitivity
answer-B — coz sensitivity occurs due to open dentinal tubules…bacterial invasion–>causing
caries n demineralization–> n opening of dentinal tubules is a long term effect
When do you see microleakage with composite restoration done without rubber dam?
Same amount of time as if done with rubber dam
2 weeks later
2 months later
Answer-2-4 weeks later
QUESTION: Highest chance of leakage under rubber dam?
Holes too wide
Holes too far apart
question-What is not an advantage of rubber dam when compared to not using it:
A. Improved properties of materials,
B. shortens operative time,
C. facilitates the use of water spray
answer-c(because water spay is beneficial in any dental procedure but when using rubber dam it
become difficult to use it as the water spray will block the vision and accumulate in the
QUESTION: Placement of rubber dam affect the colour selection by?
Answer-dehydration of tooth gives inaccurate color and black background
QUESTION: W on the rubber dam clamp means it is?
QUESTION: How to fix porcelain chip on PFM with composite?
answer- microetch or HF,>silane, >bond and composite
QUESTION: pt has composite restoration with severe pain with localized swelling?
Answer-incision and drinage
QUESTION: Pt had #8 & had a bunch of little pits in #8; how would you fix it? Composite over
pits, or over entire tooth, or veneer w/ porcelain,
Answer-composite over pits
QUESTION: pt complains of a marginal stain on #8, what do you do?
answer-Marginal stain polishing
Doudt QUESTION: Similar question: Patient’s chief complaint is #8 and #9 don’t look right.
Picture shows nothing is wrong with #9, #8 has extra enamel at the incisal-distal aspect. What do
you do? – Shave the inciso-distal aspect of #8. (Other choices were stupid; like put composite on
both teeth, put a crown on #9, etc)QUESTION: Advantage of a direct composite vs.indirect composite?
answer-the effect of polymerisation shrinkage is eliminated in indirect composite onlay.
but then the direct method is less time consuming.Better marginal adaptation with direct
indirect composites are superior to direct composites because the bulk of polymerization
shrinkage takes place outside the mouth and consequently there is less stress at the toothrestoration margin and as a result there is:
– Less microleakage
– Less marginal breakdown
– Less post-operative sensitivity u Less marginal staining.
QUESTION: You place a CaOH on the tooth for a direct pulp cap what is needed?
question-Etchant does all except?
A) Increase surface area,
B) remove debris,
C) Increase wettability of enamel,
D) dec irregularities at cavosurface margin.
Answer- decrease irregularities at cavosurface margin.
QUESTION: Beveling in acid etching composite?
answer- Increase surface area
QUESTION: Etch dissolves smear ?
answer-etching with acid, in addition to removing the Smear Layer and exposing the surface
collagen, also removed the peritubular dentin from the top 5 –10 µm of the tubules, yielding a
tubule with a funnel shaped orifice.
QUESTION: Acid-etching does not cause.
increased strength of composites
Acid etch technique: conserves tooth structure, reduces microleakage, improves esthetics and
provides micromechanical retention. Etch does improve marginal seal, helps in wetting enamel,
cleans surface debris, created micropores (roughness of surface)
QUESTION: if contamination after etch?
Answer- re etch
QUESTION: the difference of total etch and self etch
answer-Total etch requires separate phosphoric acids top to etch enamel n dentin a subsequent
rinse and application of primer n bond..
Self etch system Hav an acidic resin which etched n primes without the needful etchings ringing
ten subsequent application of bond. Most unreliable
Self etch – smear layer not removed
Total etch- smear layer removed
QUESTION: Function of filler in resin?
answer- Improved workability by increasing viscosity 2-Reduction in water sorption, softening
& staining 3- Increased radiopacity & diagnostic sensitivity 4- Reduction in thermal expansion &
contraction 5- Increased compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity 6- Increase in abrasion resistance Increased fracture toughness 7-Enhances physical & mechanical
properties to the level of tooth tissue clinical performance & durability8- Increases translucency
9- Improves handling properties.
QUESTION: Filler composites?
answer-Larger fillers have more strength, but do not polish as well
QUESTION: HEMA used by dentist, what phenomenon have
immune mediated reaction,
Answer- contact dermatitis
Question;composition of glass ionomer cement?
Powder- silica, alumina,aluminium fluoride,Calcium fluoride, cryolite,aluminium
Liquid- polyacrylic acid, itaconic acid, maleic acid, tartaric acid, tricarballylic acid, water
QUESTION: purpose of a cool glass slab when mixing cement is?
answer- to incorporate the most powder into liquid as possible.
QUESTION: Veneer after a month time has some brown stain?
not enough cement at margin,
Answer-microleakage and if there is some surface porosity present. This may be able to be
lightly buffed. Often the more common place for stains involving veneers is around the edges
where the porcelain meets the tooth.
QUESTION: Which indicated for high caries risk or multiple class Vs?
question-When you receive a crown back and want to seat it what is the first thing you check for?
a. Shade (Aesthetics)
b. Proximal contacts
Check proximal contacts first when cast that fits on die cannot be seated on the tooth in the mouth
QUESTION: What is the most practical way to seat a casting at the time of cementation?
Answer- check internal first
If other options-Parallel path of insertion
doudtQUESTION: Make sure casting seats do the following EXCEPT?
• Increase thermal expansion of investment
• Mix cement thin • Remove internal nodule with occlude-answer(given)
as b -And anyways if u mix cement thin it causes dec in exapansion and dec strength
QUESTION: You notice void on occlusal of cast. Crown will ?
a. Fit on die and not on tooth-answer
b. Fit on tooth and not on die
c. Fit on both
d. Not fit on either
QUESTION: With resin cement on all porcelain what is NOT the reason why you use it?
answer-for added retention …cements shouldn’t be used for added retention, to fill small
openings at margin
QUESTION: Why do we lute all ceramic crowns with composite:
sealing of margins, answer
QUESTION: Why don’t you use GI resin cement in cementation of all ceramic restoration?
answer-its expansion could cause cracking of porclain
doudtQUESTION: Which is not correct?
answer-resin ionomer used to cement crown