Patient Management- solved questions

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS: PATIENT MANAGEMENT

Through the bloodborne pathogen standard, the occupational safety and health administration directs
activity for each of the following except one. Which one is the exception?
a. Using barrier techniques
b. Using material safety data sheets
c. Obtaining hepatitis B vaccines
d. Communicating hazards to employees
e. Performing housekeeping

Ans: B

Stress and illness are often related. The best description of their relationship is which of the following?
a. Stress is primary cause of illness
b. Illness is adaptation to stress
c. Stress is a psychological reaction
d. They often occur together but are casually unrelated
e. Stress is contributory to illness and illness is usually stressful

Ans: E

On the basis of diagnostic test results, a dentist classifies a group of patients as being free from
disease. These results possess high
a. Sensitivity
b. Specificity
c. Generalizability
d. Repeatability

Ans: B

In pursuit of what the dentist believes is best for the patient, the dentist attempts to control patient
behavior. This is known as
a. Autonomy
b. Competence
c. Maleficence
d. Paternalism

Ans: D

Most epidemiologic studies indicate that gingivitis in children is relatively common. A strong positive
association between specific nutritional deficiencies and the presence of periodontal disease in children
and adults has been demonstrated.
1. both r true
2. both r false
3. 1st true, 2nd false
4. 1st false , 2nd true

Ans: C

In assessing patient’s dental fears, the dentist should use each of the following factors except one.
Which one is the exception?
a. Verbal statements
b. Physiological responses
c. Behavior
d. Personality

Ans: D

HIPAA was designed to
A) ensure the security and privacy of health information
B) provide insurance coverage for providers
C) increase hospital testing ability
D) encourage employees to stay in their jobs to retain insurance coverage

Ans: A

nformation about subjects in a study included their ethnicity. what level of measurement is ethnicity?
1. ordinal
2. nominal
3. ratio
4. Interval

Ans: B

MOST APPROPRIATE TEST TO DETERMINE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO MEANS?(Answer giving
examples on BOTH)
CHI SQUARE TEST
T TEST

Ans: T TEST

Which of the following behaviors would be considered
unethical with regards to a physician–
patient relationship?
A. Dating or engaging in a sexual relationship
with one of your patients.
B. Refusing to date or engage in any sexual relationship
with your patients.
C. Returning a call from one of your patients
who called you to complain of pain from the
tooth you worked on yesterday.
D. Requesting to drop off or transfer a patient
from your treatment list to a different
provider due to his/her persistent multiple
sexual advances directed toward you.

Ans: A

Explanation: It is unprofessional,
unethical, and morally inappropriate for a physician
to abuse his/her position of public trust and
engage in any form of sexual relationship with
one of his/her patients. A physician’s involvement
with a patient sexually will compromise
his/her ability to offer good services to the patient,
thereby creating an ineffective and abnormal
physician–patient relationship. Physicians
should carefully and tactfully transfer a patient
in their care to a different provider, if multiple
attempts to redirect their sexual gestures away
from the physician failed.

If Mrs. Jones shares with you that she has been
diagnosed with breast cancer what ethical principle
must you uphold?
A. Justice
B. Confidentiality
C. Beneficence
D. Veracity

Ans:B

Explanation:  Regardless of how you
feel, any information shared with you professionally
by patients must be kept confidential. Justice
involves the tenet of treating individuals fairly;
giving patients their due or what is owed them.
The principle of beneficence can be illustrated
with the statement “the action is moral if it is
good and helps to enhance patient welfare.” Veracity
involves truthfulness or speaking the truth.

. As dental professionals, we are ethically bound
to guarantee patients:
A. Nothing
B. The appropriate standard of care
C. Successful results
D. Professionalism

Ans: B

Explanation:  B. We must meet the minimum
standards of care when treating patients.
Guaranteeing nothing implies a lack of interest
in patient welfare. We are obligated to meet the
minimum standards of care. No one can predict,
promise, or guarantee successful results,
but one can state risks and benefits for a variety
of treatments. We are not obligated to guarantee
professionalism, but we should show the
patient respect and should act in a professional
manner.

What percentage of adults have tooth decay
(treated or untreated)?
A. Approximately 35% of adults aged 20 to 39
years have coronal decay.
B. Approximately 52% of adults aged 20 to 39
years have coronal decay.
C. Approximately 87% of adults aged 20 to 39
years have coronal decay.
D. All adults aged 20 to 39 years have coronal
decay

Ans: C

Explanation: ns-C.This information about
the prevalence of decay among young adults
(aged 20–39 years) was obtained from NHANES

What is/are the measure(s) of central tendency
in statistical methods?
A. Mean
B. Median
C. Mode
D. All of the above

Ans: D.In biostatistics, mean is
the average, median is the statistic that separates
the upper half of the population from the lower
half, and mode is the statistic that is of the highest
frequency

The portion or percentage of individuals having
a disease at a given time is:
A. Frequency
B. Incidence
C. Prevalence
D. Mortality

ANS: -C. Prevalence is the portion
or percentage of individuals having a disease
at a given time. Frequency is the number of
individuals having a disease at a given time. Incidence
is the rate of new cases of disease per time.
Mortality is the rate of deaths resulting from a
specific disease.

Specificity is the proportion of truly diseased persons
who are identified as being diseased. Falsepositive
result identifies individuals as having a
disease, but in reality they do not.
A. Both statements are true.
B. Both statements are false.
C. The first statement is true, the second statement
is false.
D. The first statement is false, the second statement

ANS: -D. The first statement is
false, the second statement is true. Specificity is
the proportion of truly nondiseased persons who
are identified as such. In a false-positive result,
the individual does not have the disease but is
identified as having the disease. A true-positive
result describes a situation where the individual
has the disease and is correctly identified as
such. A false-negative result is when the individual
has the disease and is incorrectly identified as
not having the disease. In a true-negative result,
the individual does not have the disease and is
correctly identified as such.

. After a needlestick or cut exposure, the pathogen
with the highest risk of infection is:
A. HBV
B. HIV
C. HCV
D. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

ANS: -A. The average risk for
infection after needle stick or cut exposure is
6% to 30% for hepatitis B virus, 1.8% for hepatitis
C virus, and 0.3% for human immunodeficiency
virus. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
airborne droplet nuclei are generated when infected
individuals sneeze, cough, and speak

. Latex allergies can result in which of the following
reactions:
i. Type I
ii. Type II
iii. Type III
iv. Type IV
A. ii and iii
B. ii and iv
C. i and ii
D. i and iv

ANS: D. Natural rubber latex
proteins may result in a type I (immediate) hypersensitivity
reaction. Common presentations
include urticaria, rhinorrhea, itchy eyes, and a
burning sensation at the point of contact. Severe
reactions may result in anaphylactic shock and
death. Latex allergies can also result in a type IV
(delayed) hypersensitivity reaction as in allergic
contact dermatitis. These reactions are usually
localized to the contact area and occur over a
12- to 48-hour period

The mechanism of action of povidone iodine is:
A. Irreversible inactivation of deoxyribonucleic
acid and proteins via alkylation
B. Heat inactivation of critical enzymes
C. Pore formation within the bacterial cell wall,
resulting in cellular leakage
D. Oxidization of free sulfhydryl groups

ANS: C. All answers describe
a legitimate antimicrobial mechanism of action.
“Irreversible inactivation of deoxyribonucleic
acid and proteins via alkylation” describes
the mechanism of action of ethylene oxide gas.
“Heat inactivation of critical enzymes” describes
the mechanism of action of steam autoclave, dry
heat, rapid heat transfer, and unsaturated chemical
vapor. “Oxidization of free sulfhydryl groups”
describes chlorine compounds (hypochlorite).
Povidone iodine causes pore formation within
the bacterial cell wall, resulting in cellular
leakage.

Which of the following statements is correct concerning
sterilization of dental instruments?
A. Gentle washing with bleaching and soaking
for 10 minutes in the bleach is required before
putting instruments in the autoclave.
B. ADA recommends biological monitors being
used once a month
C. Biological indicators contain spores of a heatresistant
bacterium Eikenella corrodens.
D. Chemical indicators are sterilizer specific.

ANS: -D. According to ADA
guideline on sterilization, indicator tapes are
sterilizer specific (i.e., tapes for steam sterilizers
cannot be used to test chemical vapor sterilizers).
The ADA also recommends the weekly
use of biological indicators. Eikenella corrodens
is a slow-growing, facultative, anaerobic, gramnegative
bacillus that is part of the normal oral
flora and is found in dental plaque. Biological
indicators contain spores of a heat-resistant bacterium
Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

 

A 6-year-old healthy boy presented to your of-
fice for the first time. His mother said he has
never been to a dentist and has never had a radiograph
taken. Intraoral examination revealed
that his permanent molars are erupted. The patient
has no clinically evident dental problems.
What kind of screening radiographic examination
will you perform?
i. Occlusal radiographs
ii. Periapical radiographs
iii. Panorex radiographs
iv. Posterior bitewing radiographs
A. i and ii
B. i and iii
C. ii and iii
D. iii and iv
E. iii only

ANS:  D. In a child with a transitional
dentition, after eruption of the first permanent
tooth, the radiographic examination should
be individualized and should consist of posterior
bitewings and panoramic examination, or
posterior bitewings and selected periapical radiograph

The following component of a scientific article
provides the reader with detailed information
regarding the study design:
A. Introduction
B. Background
C. Literature review
D. Methods
E. Abstract

ANS: -D  Methods: provide with specific and detailed i f ti di h th t d information regarding how the study was
conducted. Usually includes four subsections:
a) Sampling strategy: describe sample size
and th d f i i l d methods for assigning samples
b) Measurement strategies and
measurement instruments: how the variables
are determined
c) Experimental design: describe the study design in a step-by-step sequence.
d) St ti ti l l ti l d Statistical analytical procedures: th e
proposed strategy for quantifying, analyzing
the results along with the actual statistical
procedures proposed.

The major objective of public health is:
! Prevention
! Cost efficiency
! Teamwork
! All of the above

ANS:  A

The most important concept of C.E.A.
Winslow’s definition of public health is:
! To encourage mental and physical efficiency
! Promotion through organized community effort
! Individuals acting alone can solve any problem
! The science and art of preventing disease

ANS: D

The measure of the quality of care provided
in a particular setting is called:
! Quality assurance
! Quality evaluation
! Quality assessment
! Quality inspection

ANS: C QualitY assessment is limited to the appraisal
of whether or not the standards of quality have
been met.
! Quality assurance is the measurement of the
quality of care and the implementation of
any necessary changes to either maintain or
improve the quality of care

Dentists are:
• Morally obligated to report child abuse
• Ethically obligated to report child abuse
• Legally obligated to report child abuse
• All of the above

ANS: All of the above
Dentists are morally, ethically and legally obligated to report a suspected case of child
abuse.
Once an injury of a suspicious nature is observed, the dentist’s first and immediate
responsibility is the protection of the child.
Reports should be made to the designated state agency (social services or police).
Dentists must familiarize themselves with the exact procedures to be followed in their
own states

When obtaining informed consent, the patient must be informed of all of the following
except:
• A description of the proposed treatment
• The costs involved in the proposed treatment
• The foreseeable risks
• The benefits and prognosis of the proposed treatment
• All reasonable alternatives to the proposed treatment
• The risks, benefits, and prognosis of the alternative treatments

ANS: B             The costs involved in the proposed treatment
***Financial information should not be kept on the treatment record. Always use a
separate financial form.
All factors (except financial) must be described to the patient in language the patient
understands. Give the patient an opportunity to ask questions, and provide answers. The
patient’s consent can be provided either orally or in writing, although from a legal
standpoint a written agreement is preferred.
The written treatment plan should include the following:
• a description of the patient’s condition
• the proposed treatment
• the possibilities that the treatment may or may not be successful
• the foreseen outcome of not treating the patient’s condition
• all of the involved risks
• other possible treatment options for the patient
• cost of treatment
• estimated number and length of appointments
• when payments are expected by the patient
• how long it will take to complete all phases of treatment
• signed and dated by the patient or guardian ***Both parties (dentist and patient) get a
copy

Which principle in the code refers to “self-governance?”
• Veracity
• Justice
• Autonomy
• Beneficence
• Nonmaleficence

ANS: C

persistent and repetitions questions asked by an 8 years old patient during treatment are ?
a. attempted to delay treatment
b. medication of hyperactivity
c. sign that child may be autistic
d. expression of the child’s curiosity about the dental treatment

ANS: A

Morality differs from ethics principally in that morality is more concerned with
A) abstract theory, reasons for right and wrong
B) no difference in meanings
C) right behavior
D) situational or relative good and bad

AND: D

The cornerstone of professionalism is
A) deciding what is best for those served
B) high education
C) self-regulation
D) trust

ANS: C

Which of the following exhibits the MOST personal behavior by the dentist***
A. leaning toward the patient
B. facing directly toward the patient
C. being seated 2 feet from the patient
D. touching the patient gently on the arm

ANS: D

According to ADA publication entitled principles of ethics and code of professional conduct, a dentist can announce specialization in which of the following?
a. implantology
b. hospital dentistry
c. aesthetic dentistry
d. dental public health
e. geriatric dentistry

ANS: D

A dentist is doing research on 5 unrelated patient with different background. He record data dentist is doing what kind of research?
a. clinical trial
b. cohort
c. sectional
d Cross sectional

ANS: D

Which of the following are necessary for a test to be accurate?*****
1)specificity
2)reliability
3)validity
4)sensitivity

ANS: C

Which will aid in the cognitive appraisal of a threat?
1.Adaptability, preventability, inevitability, and constancy
2.Controllability, familiarity, predictability, and imminence
3.Interference, adaptability, longevity, and reactance
4.Validity, reliability, adaptability, and predictability
5.Accountability, reliability, validity, and familiarity

ANS: B

While extracting a maxillary molar, you lose a root down the maxillary sinus which cannot be retracted at the moment. You do not inform the patient of the incident. Which code of ethical principle did you break?
1. Beneficence
2. Non malifecence
3. Patient Autonomy
4. Veracity
5. Justice

ANS: D

Restoring a carious tooth relieved the toothache in a patient which further motivated him to perform better oral health care. This is a type of
1. Positive reinforcement
2. Negative reinforcement
3. Positive punishment
4. Negative punishment

ANS: B     Positive – adding / giving something good (reward, praise) to encourage certain behaviour ,
negative – taking away the bad to encourage certain behaviour…. In this case you’re taking away the pain/bad (negative ) and motivating the patient to maintain oral hygiene ( reinforcing

Ryan white care act provides dental care to HIV + / AIDS individual. They get their funds via
1. NIH
2. AHRO
3. HRSA
4. NIDCR

ANS: C

Which is not correct about stress?
a. Predictability-less predictability causes more stress.
b. Controllability – less controllability causes the more stress.
c. Familiarity-less familiarity causes more stress.
d. Positive situations are less stressful than negative situations.
e. Imminence-more imminent situations are more stressful.       ANS: D

If you want to study on the pdf, you can download this Pt-Manag.-Discussion-Ques-By-Sachin

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