1. Antagonist of opioid-NALTREXONE and NALOXONE

An antagonist is a drug that blocks opioids by attaching to the opioid receptors without activating them. Antagonists cause no opioid effect and block full agonist opioids. Examples are naltrexone and naloxone.

  1. Antagonist of diazepam- FLUMAZENIL

Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected

  1. Leukotrienes associated with what?

Inflammatory molecules called leukotrienes are one of several substances which are released by mast cells during an asthma attack, and it is leukotrienes which are primarily responsible for the bronchoconstriction. … Leukotrienes are derived from arachidonic acid, the precursor of prostaglandins

  1. Bisphophosonates-

FDA-approved indications for bisphosphonates include treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, osteoporosis in men, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, hypercalcemia of malignancy, Paget disease of the bone, and malignancies with metastasis to the bone.

  1. Which drug acts against acetylcholine- Atropine, an antagonist for muscarinic ACh receptors, lowers the parasympathetic activity of muscles and glands in the parasympathetic nervous system. Neostigmine is an indirect ACh receptor agonist that inhibits acetylcholinesterase, preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine
  2. Thyroid storm-

Thyroid storm is a life-threatening health condition that is associated with untreated or undertreated hyperthyroidism. During thyroid storm, an individual’s heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature can soar to dangerously high levels. Without prompt, aggressive treatment, thyroid storm is often fatal.

  1. Primary herpetic gingivostomatitits-Children 2-4 ages
  2. Combination syndrome-??
  3. Peutz jeghers syndrome- Autosomal-Dominant condition, (PJS) is an inherited condition that puts people at an increased risk for developing hamartomatous polyps in the digestive tract, as well as cancers of the breast, colon and rectum, pancreas, stomach, testicles, ovaries, lung, cervix, and other types listed below.

Symptoms of PJS are:

Brownish or bluish-gray spots on the lips, gums, inner lining of the mouth, and skin.

Clubbed fingers or toes.

Cramping pain in the belly area.

Dark freckles on and around the lips of a child.

Blood in the stool that can be seen with the naked eye (sometimes)


  1. Okc-navoid basal cell carcinoma
  2. Max nitrous for kids- max is 50 , given 30 (for adults max 70,but 50-60 given)
  3. Necrotizing sialometaplasia-

Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) is a benign, ulcerative lesion, usually located towards the back of the hard palate. It is thought to be caused by ischemic necrosis (death of tissue due to lack of blood supply) of minor salivary glands in response to trauma.

  1. Papillary hyperplasia-

Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia is a hyperplasia (overgrowth) of soft tissue, usually beneath a denture. It is associated with poor denture hygiene, denture overuse, and ill-fitting dentures.

  1. Most common missing tooth-

Mand 3rd molar> Max 3rd molar>Max lateral incisor> Mand 2nd premolar

  1. Slob rule- The buccal object/SLOB rule is a method used to determine the relative position of two objects in the oral cavity using projectional dental radiography.
  2. Actinomycosis-Actinomycosis happens when the Actinomyces species of bacteria spread through the body because of tissue damage. Most people have Actinomyces bacteria in the lining of the mouth, throat, digestive tract, and urinary tract, and it is present in the female genital tract
  3. Cross allergic to penicillin-Cephalosporines
  4. 2 LA calculations -just remember ans 1-150
  5. Climdamycin-alternate to amoxicilin (couse pseudo colitis)
  6. Paresthesia of lip-malignancy, angle fracture, nerve injury
  7. Evaluation of 2 drugs study- clinical trial
  8. Bio transformation except question I chose doesn’t happen in plasma and kidney

Biotransforming enzymes are widely distributed throughout the body. The liver is the primary biotransforming organ due to its large size and high concentration of biotransforming enzymes . The kidneys and lungs are next with 10-30% of the liver’s capacity.

  1. Behavior influenced by stimuli I did wrong, remember that .
  2. Most common pattern on bone loss-Horizontal

Most common pattern It occurs when the path of inflammation is to the crest bone. The crest of the bone is perpendicular to the tooth surface. … Vertical bone loss Less common pattern It occurs when the pathway of inflammation travels directly into the pdl space. This type of bone loss produce infrabony pocket

  1. Tzanck cells seen in- Tzanck cells (acantholytic cells) are found in: Herpes simplex. Varicella and herpes zoster. Pemphigus vulgaris.
  2. Bacteria in implants-

Six anaerobic bacteria found in teeth and implants sulci were Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative cocci, Prevotella, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroid Fragilis and Fusobacterium. Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative cocci had maximum and minimum percentage frequency in the two groups, respectively.

  1. Where do we place place rest on tooth-Abutment tooth
  2. Fetal alcohol syndrome- People with FAS have central nervous system (CNS) problems, minor facial features, and growth problems. People with FAS can have problems with learning, memory, attention span, communication, vision, or hearing. They might have a mix of these problems.
  3. Cleidocranial dysplasia- Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare genetic condition that affects teeth and bones, such as the skull, face, spine, collarbones and legs. The bones in people with CCD might be formed differently or might be more fragile than normal, and certain bones such as collarbones may be absent.
  4. Kvp

31.Filtration – Inherent filtration = glass, oil

Total filtration = aluminum

  1. Purpose of plaque index- Patient motivation
  2. Rescue inhaler-chose epinephrine but it’s albuterol (they didn’t mention anything about asthma just said rescue inhaler)
  3. Most common perforation of medical side which tooth-MAX 1st premolar
  4. Which pulp horn easily perforates in primary tooth-MAN 1st molar
  5. Tetracycline given at age 5 which teeth affected-Canines, premolars 2 molars

( Incisors and 1st molars already finished enamel formation.)

  1. Gingival retraction cord-The gingival retraction cord is primarily used to push the gum tissue away from the prepared margins of the tooth, in order to create an accurate impression of the teeth. The gum can get in the way of an impression of a tooth, and this is why gums are typically pushed out of the way.
  • Can cause increase HR, BP
  • Don’t use in hyperthyroid or cardiac disease
  1. Actinic cheilitis doesn’t happen except- Lower lip, corner of mouth

Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a lip inflammation caused by long-term sunlight exposure. It usually appears as very chapped lips, then may turn white or scaly. AC may be painless, but it can lead to squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated.

  1. If a student was to decide to do full crown or extraction study -meta analysis
  2. Prevelance- prevalence – The proportion (%) of individuals exhibiting the disease or condition (e.g., dental caries, TB, lung cancer) in a defined population group (e.g., the prevalence of dental caries is 50% in children aged 6 to 11 years).
  3. Least sedative antihistamine-

Research suggests that fexofenadine is the least sedating of the newer antihistamines. According to drug safety monitoring reports, loratadine and fexofenadine are less likely to cause sedation than cetirizine

These antihistamines are much less likely to cause drowsiness:

Cetirizine (Zyrtec, Zyrtec Allergy)

Desloratadine (Clarinex)

Fexofenadine (Allegra, Allegra Allergy)

Levocetirizine (Xyzal, Xyzal Allergy)

Loratadine (Alavert, Claritin)


  1. Mechanism of epinephrine in LA -Mechanism of action of local anesthetics — LAs reversibly inhibit nerve transmission by binding voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) in the nerve plasma membrane. Nav channels are integral membrane proteins, anchored in the plasma membrane.

In general, the maximum recommended dose (MRD) of epinephrine in LA formulations for healthy adults is 0.2 mg per visit. Based on this recommendation, the maximum safe dose of 2% lidocaine w/epinephrine 1:100,000 (0.01 mg/mL) is 20 mL and w/epinephrine 1:50,000 (0.02 mg/mL) it is 10 mL.

  1. Migraine-A headache of varying intensity, often accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light and sound.

Migraine headaches are sometimes preceded by warning symptoms. Triggers include hormonal changes, certain foods and drinks, stress, and exercise.

  1. Ketoacidosis-

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can’t produce enough insulin.

  1. School children prevention of caries-0.2% Fluoride rinse 1x week-school rinse
  2. Xylitol- prevent plaque build up, prevent bacteria to adhere on tooth surface
  3. Periodontitis stage 2- : Early Periodontitis — inflammation of the gingiva (gums) and the surrounding tissues that results in early bone loss.
  4. Lymphoepithelial cyst- Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland) and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth) …
  5. Coronoid x ray-
  6. Ptm x ray
  7. Tmj-mri
  8. Sialolith-occlusal
  9. Tension side what cells-Osteoblasts are laying down new bone
  10. Saliva how it affects denture- In the denture wearing people, saliva is necessary to create adhesion, cohesion, and surface tension that ultimately leads to the increased retention of the denture. Medications have some influence on the flow rate of saliva and denture retention.

THIN & WATERY saliva is better for adhesion!!!

  1. Everything we do in try in -except Facebow Transfer

56.Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is a generic term which describes a set of disorders resulting in the leakage of air into the nasal passages during speech production. As a result, speech samples can demonstrate hypernasality, nasal emissions, and poor intelligibility.  -except question no airway blocking option

  1. Why to extract molar in 43 year old pt.-bone pathology
  2. Passive eruption- Goldman and Cohen5 described altered passive eruption as a condition in which the free gingival margin fails to recede during tooth eruption to a level apical to the cervical convexity of the clinical crown. By contrast, passive eruption is a biologic process whereby tooth eruption occurs normally

Altered passive eruption is described as a condition in which the relationship between teeth, alveolar bone, and the soft tissues creates an excessive gingival display and, in turn, in some circumstances, it may reveal a clinical aspect also known as the “gummy smile.” The surgical management of such cases is well …

  1. Asthma pt.what happens to airway-narrowing airway
  2. Methemoglobinemia-

condition in which a higher-than-normal amount of methemoglobin is found in the blood. Methemoglobin is a form of hemoglobin that cannot carry oxygen. In methemoglobinemia, tissues cannot get enough oxygen.

  1. Function of post- to retain core
  2. Implant and neurovascular bundle distance-
  3. Occlusal rest function-

Occlusal rests serve to support the position of a partial denture

  1. Chroma-saturation
  2. Best bone for implant – Type 2 bone is the best bone for osseointegration of dental implants. It provides good cortical anchorage for primary stability, yet has better vascularity than Type 1 bone. Types 3 and 4 are soft bone textures with the least success in type 4 bone.
  3. Best place for connective tissue graft- HARD PALATE

The connective tissue graft is harvested from the hard palate. The ideal location is 5-6 mm apical to the gingival margin of the palatal aspects of the maxillary premolars and the mesial half of the maxillary first molar. Incisions are made to gain access to the connective tissue.

  1. What seen commonly -cleft lip
  2. Desentizing agents-read all the material thoroughly

Potassium nitrate—

Mainly used in dentistry as a desensitizing agent, it is believed to reduce dental sensitivity by decreasing the ability of nerve fibers in the dental pulp to re-polarize after an initial depolarization due to pain sensation.

  1. Gic advantage- Glass ionomer cements exhibit a number of advantages over other restorative materials. By bonding a restorative material to tooth structure, the cavity is theoretically sealed, protecting the pulp, eliminating secondary caries and preventing leakage at the margins.
  2. Why we prefer open impression tray- It has also been shown that splinting the impression copings in the mouth (ie. … However, if the implants are malaligned it is advisable to use open tray impression copings since the misalignment of the implants may lock the impression in the mouth if closed tray impression copings are used because of their lack of draw

Key points. The open tray technique is specifically indicated when the implants are not sufficiently parallel to allow an impression to be withdrawn from multiple impression copings. The closed tray impression technique is utilized when the implants are sufficiently parallel to each other.

  1. Fracture of mandible what is affected -contra lateral condyle
  2. Vertical angulation with value of 20- … For the premolar and incisor regions, deviation of the vertical angulation of an x-ray of up to 20 degrees …
  3. Pm drain abscess near buccinator which space- buccal space ???/
  4. Chromium cobalt why do we use- It is a metal alloy that has outstanding strength, as well as wear and corrosion resistance. Because of these features and it’s biocompatibility, cobalt-chrome is often used for making dental/orthopedic implants and rings.
  • Chromium: ensures that the alloy will resist tarnish and corrosion (due to formation of a complex chromium oxide film)
  • Cobalt: contributes strength, rigidness and hardness
  • Nickel: increases ductility
  1. Opaque porcelain functions- cover metal
  2. Autism-76



A serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact.

Autism spectrum disorder impacts the nervous system.

  1. Cerebral palsy-A congenital disorder of movement, muscle tone, or posture.

Cerebral palsy is due to abnormal brain development, often before birth.

  1. Ortho theory about how treatment affects psychologically to patients
  2. Parulis no picture just description-A pocket of pus in a tooth caused by an infection.

The infection can result from an untreated cavity, injury, or old dental work.

The parulis, also known as the “gum boil,” is an extremely common oral lesion. The parulis is a localized collection of pus in gingival soft tissue. The pus is produced as a result of necrosis of non-vital pulp tissue, or occlusion of a deep periodontal pocket.

  1. OSHA doesn’t what and what not—80-OSHA sets bloodborne pathogen standard for dentistry, HIV and HBV
  2. Mercury dispense
  3. Indirect retainer function- Denture stability

An indirect retainer on the incisal of the mandibular canine helps to prevent rotation of the denture base away from the tissue. This is especially important when eating sticky foods. The indirect retainer should be located as far away from the rotational fulcrum line as possible.


  1. Dents in dente- Dens in dente, also known as dens invaginatus, is a rare dental anomaly. This anomaly occurs when the enamel (the outer, visible layer of the tooth) folds into the dentin (the hard tissue beneath the enamel) during tooth development. This results in what looks like a tooth within a tooth.


  1. Status epilepticus- Status epilepticus (SE) is a single seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

BENZODIAZEPINES. The benzodiazepines are some of the most effective drugs in the treatment of acute seizures and status epilepticus. The benzodiazepines most commonly used to treat status epilepticus are diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and midazolam (versed)


  1. Posterior palatal seal- The posterior palatal seal area is defined as the soft tissue area at or beyond the junction of the hard and soft palates on which pressure within physiological limits can be applied by a removable complete denture to aid in its retention.


  1. Exfoliate cytology- In exfoliative cytology, cells shed from body surfaces, such as the inside of the mouth, are collected and examined. This technique is useful only for the examination of surface cells and often requires additional cytological analysis to confirm the results.


  1. Biopsy-

Biopsies are usually performed to determine whether tissue or a tumor is malignant (cancerous) or to determine the cause of an unexplained infection or inflammation.

  1. Test to diff apical granuloma and cyst-

The periapical granuloma is an accumulation of chronically inflamed granulation tissue seen at the apex of a nonvital tooth. The radicular cyst is a lesion that develops over a prolonged period of time within an existing periapical granuloma. A cyst, by definition, has an epithelial lining.

  1. Test to diff apical abscess and periodontal abscess- pulp vitality test?


  1. Dentinogénesis imperfecta- Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a condition characterized by teeth that are translucent and discolored (most often blue-grey or yellow-brown in color). Individuals with this disorder tend to have teeth that are weaker than normal, which leads to wear, breakage, and loss of teeth.
  2. Open niti what force- light continues forces
  3. Chx mechanism and uses- Chx mechanism and uses – Action of chlorhexidine: binds to cell wall à cell membrane disruption /rupture à fluid leaks out, cell lysis (CHX bursts membranes. Use of chlorhexidine à reduce plaque accumulation – broad spectrum against gram positive and negative bacteria and fungi – Positively charged


It has both bacteriostatic (inhibits bacterial growth) and bactericidal (kills bacteria) mechanisms of action, depending on its concentration. Chlorhexidine kills by disrupting the cell membrane. Upon application in vitro, chlorhexidine can kill nearly 100% of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria within 30 seconds.


93.incisal pin- not in contact in protrusion record???

  1. Pt abandonment- non maleficence
  2. Autonomy-self governance . Informed consent-autonomy
  3. Non malficence- The principle of nonmaleficence holds that there is an obligation not to inflict harm on others. It is closely associated with the maxim primum non nocere (first do no harm).
  4. Purpose of straight line access-to prevent brake of files

AN ideal access provides a straight-line path to the canal orifice and to mid-root. It eliminates the need for a mirror and searching for the orifice every time you try to enter the canal with an instrument

  1. Root tip broke what you do-

Various techniques have been documented in literature for removal of broken root like creating a bony window above the root apex [1] or surgical removal of bone around the root within the socket and retrieving the root fragment, removal with apex elevators, periotome, luxators [1] syringe needle [2] or by engaging

  1. Addison disease- A disorder in which the adrenal glands don’t produce enough hormones. TX: cortisol
  2. Avulsion many questions read in and out- Avulsion is defined as the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket in alveolar bone owing to trauma (Andreasen, et al., 2003) and is one of the most serious of all dental injuries.

. Avulsion many questions read in and out-Tooth Avulsion: complete dislodgement of a tooth out of its socket by traumatic injury.

Short extraoral dry time & proper storage medium are key factors in offering favorable treatment outcomes.

To slow down osseous replacement of tooth, tx root surface w/ 2% NaF solution for 20 min.

Avulsion: 7-10 days non-rigid/flexible splint, antibiotics

  1. Pregnant women- left dislodgment due to pressure on Inferior Vena Cava
  2. Plaque cause pyogenic granuloma
  3. Matrix placed in relation to marginal ridge- extends 1.5-2.0 mm above the marginal rirdge
  4. Bulk fill composite- Bulk-fill resin composites are light-cured resin composites that can be placed in increments or layers of 4 to 5 mm in depth. These materials have been available to the dental profession for several years now. Their adoption has been slow, but they are gaining popularity, and sales are increasing.


  1. Nitrates moa- How do nitrates work? Nitrates are a vasodilator. Vasodilators widen (dilate) the blood vessels, improving blood flow and allowing more oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart muscle. Nitrates also relax the veins to ease the workload on the heart when blood is returning to the heart from the arms and legs.


  1. Fgg- The free gingival graft (FGG) is a surgical procedure frequently used in periodontics to increase the amount of keratinized tissue surrounding a tooth or a dental implant. Keratinized tissue plays a major role (around teeth and dental implants), helping to maintain and facilitate oral hygiene

FGG -widen keratinized tissue

In this case report, the modified FGG technique increased keratinized tissue using less donor tissue by placing the graft material as apically as possible and leaving the periosteum coronal to the graft …


  1. How you do external bevel gingivectomy

the external bevel gingivectomy, used in cases of abnormally dense overgrowth of gingiva, is a more aggressive treatment involving a full removal of the enlarged tissue.

  1. Hardest to remove impression-

Alginate would be considered the most flexible of the impression materials, whereas polyethers would be considered the least flexible

  1. Least flexible impression
  2. Cavernous sinus
  3. Cavernous sinus-Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) = blood clot formation w/in the CS at the base of the brain, which drains deoxygenated blood from the brain back to the heart. Usually from an infection from nose, sinuses, ears, teeth or Forunculo.

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus are often the associated.

Symptoms include: decrease/loss of vision, chemosis (edema of eye conjunctiva), exophthalmos (bulging eyes), ptosis, headaches (1st sign) and paralysis of the cranial nerves that course through the cavernous sinus.

This infection is life-threatening and requires immediate TX.

Infections in upper front teeth are within the area of the face known as the “dangerous

triangle”. The dangerous triangle is visualized by imagining a triangle with the top point

about at the bridge of the nose and the two lower points on either corner of the mouth.

  1. 4 year old heart beat- 70-110

Children 1 to 2 years old: 80 to 130 beats per minute. Children 3 to 4 years old: 80 to 120 beats per minute. Children 5 to 6 years old: 75 to 115 beats per minute. Children 7 to 9 years old: 70 to 110 beats per minute


  1. Stress bearing area for mandible – Primary stress bearing area/retention:

– Mandibular – buccal shelf (slow resportion, access determined by buccinator attachment)

– Maxillary: ridges in RPD, hard palate


  1. Ian what not anesthetized-mylohyoid


  1. Critical ph- The critical pH is the pH at which saliva and plaque fluid cease to be saturated with calcium and phosphate, thereby permitting the hydroxyapatite in dental enamel to dissolve. It is the highest pH at which there is a net loss of enamel from the teeth, which is generally accepted to be about 5.5 for enamel.
  2. Leukoedema- Leukoedema is a generalized white change of oral mucosa which is probably a variation of normal rather than a disease. The cause is unknown. It occurs much more commonly in blacks than whites. Leukoedema is diffuse and symmetrically distributed on the buccal mucosa and may extend onto the labial mucosa.


  1. Graces curette asked 2 times both medial and distal


  1. Sulfonyl diabetic drug moa- Stimulate insulin release from Beta cells in the pancreas , stimulate binding, decrease glucagon levels.

MOA of sulfonylurea- increase insulin PRODUCTION and SENSITIVITY by Beta cells stimulation by binding to ATP-dependent K channels

–  stimulating pancreatic insulin release by binding to ATP K+ channels & causing depolarization, which stimulates calcium ion influx & induces insulin secretion.


  1. Working and non working 2 easy questions.
  2. Working and non working- Balancing-LUBL Working-BULL Protrusive-DUML
  3. Turner incisor- Turner’s Tooth, also called Enamel Hypoplasia by professionals in the field, is a condition that reduces a tooth’s enamel thickness, increases tooth sensitivity, leaves the affected tooth more susceptible to decay, and results in an unsightly appearance

An enamel defect in the permanent teeth caused by periapical inflammatory disease in the overlying primary tooth is referred to as Turner’s tooth (also known as Turner’s hypoplasia).

  1. Best material for class 5- Amalgam?

Restoration material: the five-year survival of the different materials was: amalgam – 75%, glass ionomer (GI) – 50.6%, resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) – 78.6%, compomer – 71.2%, composite – 68.3%, flowable composite – 69%.

  1. For resistance we add proximal grooves
  2. Crohn’s disease-

Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It causes inflammation of your digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition. Inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease can involve different areas of the digestive tract in different people.

  1. First sign of first degree burn- redding and pain
  2. Why we do cultural sensitivity- To find out resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics
  3. Best position for vdr-

Vertical Dimension of Rest (VDR)-the vertical length of

the face measured between two arbitrary points (1 point

above & 1 below the mouth) when the mandible is in the

rest position. In a physiologically healthy individual, there is

always a vertical space between the teeth (freeway space)

when the mandible is in the rest position. This position is

important in complete denture fabrication because it

provides a guide to the VDO.

VDR = Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO) +

Interocclusal Distance

  1. Clinical attachment loss 1 question
  2. Red complex bacteria- P.gingivalis T-denticola T forsythia
  3. Forceps how they work- remove extract tooth

Traditional extraction techniques use a combination of severing the periodontal attachment, luxation with an elevator, and removal with forceps. If the elevator fails to cause noticeable separation of the tooth from the socket, the forceps accomplish the work through intermittent apical and lateral forces.


  1. Digitalis moa— The main mechanism of action of digitalis is on the sodium-potassium ATPase of the myocyte. It reversibly inhibits the ATPase resulting in increased intracellular sodium levels. The build-up of intracellular sodium leads to a shift of sodium extracellularly through another channel in exchange for calcium ions


  1. What do you do in the first appointment-


  1. Affected and infected dentin read well very close options
  2. Which doesn’t occur in midline

The globulomaxillary cyst is a cyst that appears between a maxillary lateral incisor and the adjacent canine. It exhibits as an “inverted pear-shaped radiolucency” on radiographs, or X-ray films. The globulomaxillary cyst often causes the roots of adjacent teeth to diverge.


occuring in midline–cleft palate,nasopalatine duct cyst,thyroglossal duct cyst, median palatal cyst,  median rhomboid glossitis


  1. Most malignant potential-

Erythroplakia is an abnormal red area or group of red spots that forms on the mucous membrane lining the mouth with no clear cause. The presence of erythroplakia does not necessarily mean cancer, but this precancerous condition has a high risk of developing into cancer.


  1. Contraindication for gingivectomy

The procedure assists in decreasing gingival tissue in cases of enlargement and in altering fibrotic gingiva (Figure 4-3). However, gingivectomy is contraindicated when (1) access to osseous structure is critical or (2) gingival attachment is inadequate (minimal) or absent.

  1. Disulfiram to treat- Alcoholism medication

It can treat problem drinking by creating an unpleasant reaction to alcohol. It’s used in recovery programs that include medical supervision and counseling.

  1. Palatogingival groove- Palatogingival groove or radicular lingual groove (RLG) is a developmental anomaly that occurs as developmental infoldings of the inner enamel epithelium and Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath (HERS), involving primarily maxillary lateral incisors.


  1. Most common osteoarthritis-

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Some people call it degenerative joint disease or “wear and tear” arthritis. It occurs most frequently in the hands, hips, and knees. With OA, the cartilage within a joint begins to break down and the underlying bone begins to change.


  1. Not to consider in Endo planning
  2. Dental manager not on site -general supervision
  3. Blood flow in tooth
  4. Open apex why better chance of healing
  5. Which one caused by Endo infection -apical granuloma
  6. Doesn’t invade basement membrane -dysplasia


  1. Pedal edema- Pedal edema (foot and ankle swelling) is one of the cardinal signs of congestive heart failure (HF) but can also be due to other systemic or local conditions, including chronic kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid disorders, venous insufficiency, and venous thrombosis1


  1. Most likely reason to not find mb2 Canal-Lines in the pulp chamber floor lead to the entrance of the canals; these lines form a “map”, also known as rostrum canalis. Following these lines with an endodontic explorer from the mesiobuccal to the palatal canal is a good manner to locate the MB2 canal, as it is usually located 2–3 mm from the mesiobuccal canal
  2. Inhibits resin bonding- ZOE
  3. Why do we need recall at 3 months for perio—

Gum disease is controllable but not curable. The periodontal maintenance is the most important procedure that you can do to keep periodontal disease under control. Usually at the completion of active therapy, a 3 month recall schedule is selected because the bacteria build up and double every day.


  1. Ostectomy-An ostectomy is a procedure involving the removal of bone.
  2. Expiratory wheeze- Expiratory wheezing alone often indicates a mild airway obstruction. Inspiratory wheezing occurs when you inhale. In some people with asthma, you can only hear wheezing during the inspiratory phase. If you’re wheezing when you exhale and inhale, you could have a more severe breathing issue.
  3. Concresence-

. Concrescence is a developmental anomaly of dental hard tissues. It is a condition showing union of adjacent teeth by cementum. The concrescence leads to a loss of gingival architecture leading to the development of funnels, which may cause plaque accumulation thus, resulting in periodontal tissue destruction.


  1. Germination-Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development, resulting in a bifid crown. They are found more frequently in the primary than in the permanent dentition unilaterally, but bilateral gemination is very rare.
  2. Fusion-. Tooth fusion is defined as the union between two or more separate developing teeth. Such anomaly may be complete or incomplete depending on the developmental stage of the associated tooth buds [1]. If contact between two tooth buds occurs before calcification, complete fusion ensues.
  3. Trephination- Trephination (also known as trepanning or burr holing) is a surgical intervention where a hole is drilled, incised or scraped into the skull using simple surgical tools


  1. Which one quantitative- cross section
  2. Study that measured people negative for positive -less sensitivity
  3. Bundling-bundling – is when you group things together when they need to be billed separately?
  4. How to increase flexibility of wire
  5. Bone of interdental-normally, interdental bone appears 1-2 mm apical (toward the root) to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ)
  6. Tad attached to- cortical bone
  7. Leading question
  8. Mi and angina how to differentiate- Duration of pain

This causes symptoms of angina and is a sign that your heart needs to rest. The key difference between angina and a heart attack is that angina is the result of narrowed (rather than blocked) coronary arteries. This is why, unlike a heart attack, angina does not cause permanent heart damage.

  1. Initiation stage- 6 week in utero, formation dental lamina, defects congenitally missing teeth, sueprnumerary
  2. What we see in older people -depression

Senility, by contrast, is an older term used to describe a decline in an older adult’s physical and cognitive health. Like dementia, senility can cause changes in mental health, such as memory loss or a decline in judgment. But senility symptoms can also include physical changes such as: Stiff joints. Change in posture


  1. Aspirin and acetaminophen what they have in common


Although both drugs can help fight inflammation, they belong to different drug classes. Acetaminophen is an antipyretic (fever reducer) and analgesic (pain reliever) while aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)

  1. Efficacy-

efficacy describes the maximum response that can be achieved with a drug. The effect of the drug is plotted against dose in a graph, to give the dose–response curve.


  1. Ed 50

median effective dose

The ED50 (median effective dose) is the dose of a medication that produces a specific effect in 50% of the population that takes that dose


  1. Acyclovir for- Acyclovir is used to treat infections caused by certain types of viruses. It treats cold sores around the mouth (caused by herpes simplex), shingles (caused by herpes zoster), and chickenpox. This medication is also used to treat outbreaks of genital herpes.
  2. Diazepam moa-

Diazepam is a benzodiazepine that exerts anxiolytic, sedative, muscle- relaxant, anticonvulsant and amnestic effects 9,10,6. Most of these effects are thought to result from facilitation of the action of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system 9


  1. Zoloft moa- The mechanism of action of sertraline is presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin (5HT). Studies at clinically relevant doses in man have demonstrated that sertraline blocks the uptake of serotonin into human platelets.


  1. Beta adrenergic effect on heart .- Beta-adrenoceptor agonists (β-agonists) bind to β-receptors on cardiac and smooth muscle tissues. … Overall, the effect of β-agonists is cardiac stimulation (increased heart rate, contractility, conduction velocity, relaxation) and systemic vasodilation.

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